Monday, 26 August 2019

Bromelain Modulated the Immune System Against the Development of Diseases

By Kyle J. Norton

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that provide the body's defense against infectious organisms and pathogens.

The immune system can be classified into innate immunity and adaptive immunity
* Innate immunity comprised the cells and mechanisms is the process of the immune response against infection in a non-specific manner.

* Adaptive immunity or acquired immunity is the process to destroy pathogens or prevent their growth by a composed of highly specialized, systemic cells that have been causing a threat to the body in the past.

Diseases associated with the immune system can also be classified into under active immunity and overactive immunity
* Underactive immunity also known as weakened immune function is a condition found mostly in people with chronic illness, the elderly and children with immature immunity.

People with a weakened immune system are prone to infectious diseases.

* Overactive immunity associated with autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves'disease, inflammatory bowel disease, caused by allergens induced the immune system mistakenly attacking the body tissues.

In inflammatory perspective, the chronic inflammatory diseases are also caused by the immune system failure in destroying all foreign invaders in the acute infection in a set period of time, leading to immune adaptation with the long-term production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Diseases associated with chronic inflammation include type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease.
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

On finding a potential compound for the modulation of the immune system, researchers examined the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossovers randomized clinical trial.

Injection of bromelain demonstrated significant immune-modulatory effects on Th1 cell mediator interferon-gamma in response to antigenic stimulation, Th2-type cytokine IL-5 in the regulation of humoral immune responses to extracellular parasites and bacterial infection as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. 

In other words, bromelain has a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system in the modulation of cellular responses of lymphocyte.

In order to obtain more information of bromelain immunomodulatory effects, researchers investigated the influence of bromelain and trypsin on the cytokine production and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with a classical cellular mediated autoimmune disorder, namely encephalomyelitis disseminate (ED) as well as from healthy controls.

The experiment carried out with PBMC from patients with ED (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) cultured for seven days at 37 degrees C under three different conditions: without antigen, with bromelain and with trypsin (final concentrations 10-1000 microg/ml).

Compared to trypsin, PBMC from patients with ED and healthy controls showed a significantly increased proliferative response to bromelain (ED: 14053+/- 7585 CPM with bromelain vs. spontaneous proliferation of 430+/- 255 CPM; healthy controls.

Furthermore, bromelain modulated the immune expression by activating macrophages/monocytes and type 1 cell associated with the adaptive immunity process independently from the underlying disease.

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered a remedy for the modulation of immune function, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain by Müller S1, März R, Schmolz M, Drewelow B, Eschmann K, Meiser P. (PubMed)
(2) In vitro study on the immunological effect of bromelain and trypsin on mononuclear cells from humans by Barth H1, Guseo A, Klein R. (PubMed)

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