Tuesday, 6 August 2019

Betaxanthins, the Natural Free Radical Scavenger

By Kyle J. Norton

Free radical scavengers are types of antioxidants that inhibit free radicals before they can induce oxidation.

Antioxidants are stable atoms which inhibit oxidation caused by free radicals.

Oxidative stress associated with chronic disease is caused by long-term imbalanced ratio of free radicals and antioxidants. Over time, oxidative stress epidemiologically can cause proteins, lipid, and cellular damage, major causes of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

Antioxidants besides produced by the body, they can also come into the body from the dietary sources.

Not all free radicals are bad, in a moderate amount, free radicals are necessary for the body functioning, including the promotion of heart function in blood circulation.

Dr. Anu Rahal and colleagues in the examination of the interplay of oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants wrote, "Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis".

And, "the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue".

Most common types of free radical scavengers produced by the human
* Catalases are antioxidants that protect the cell from oxidative damage by decomposed hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

*Glutathione peroxidase, is a cytosolic enzyme produced by the host that dissolves hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen and peroxide radicals to alcohols and oxygen.

*Superoxide dismutase (SOD) dissolves superoxide radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide.

Betaxanthins are Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, Sicilian prickly pear, etc.

On finding a potent ingredient for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, researchers investigated the effects of proline-betaxanthin generated by betalamic acid, the chromophore of betaxanthins.

According to the results of 24 betaxanthin species synthesized by the condensation reaction of purified betalamic acid and amino acids or amines, researchers found that all compound exerted a significant inhibition of free radicals.

γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-betaxanthins, compared to Proline-, dopamine-, under large-scale conditions, and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl showed comparatively low activity,

Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activity of dopamine-betaxanthin was similar to that of red pigment betanin and the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucoside.

Moreover, proline-betaxanthin demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity compared to those of dopamine-, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, similar to those of flavonoid quercetin.

Taken altogether, betaxanthins may be considered a free radical scavenging antioxidant remedy,  pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) In vitro synthesis of betaxanthins using recombinant DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase and evaluation of their radical-scavenging activities by Sekiguchi H1, Ozeki Y, Sasaki N. (PubMed)
(2) Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay by Anu Rahal, Amit Kumar, Vivek Singh, and Brijesh Yadav. (Research Gate)

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