Wednesday, 7 August 2019

Phytochemical Alliin, The Best Natural Antioxidants

By Kyle J. Norton

Antioxidants are stable atoms that inhibit oxidation caused by free radicals.

Free radicals, on the other hand, are unstable atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost ring.

Therefore, in order for them to achieve stable, free radicals are always ready to intercept or donate an electron to other stable atoms, leading to a cascade that cannot be stopped until all electrons in the outermost ring are paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Overexpression of free radicals in the long-term can lead to oxidative stress, leading to proteins and lipids and cell damage in facilitating the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neuro diseases,... and caners.

Most cases of oxidative stress is a result of an imbalance of the ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidant.

Believe it or not, free radicals in a moderate amount and in the control of the presence of antioxidant are essential for the body in food and energy metabolism and blood circulation.

Dr. V. Lobo, the lead scientist in the evaluation of "Free radicals, antioxidants, and functional foods: Impact on human health". wrote, "Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function".

And, " Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years".

The results suggested by maintaining an adequate amount of functional foods (not synthetic antioxidants) with plenty of antioxidant, oxidative stress may be preventable.

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

With an aim to find the potential compound for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, researchers examined the antioxidant activity of bioactive compound alliin.

Compared to garlic compounds representing the four main chemical classes, alliin, allyl cysteine, allyl disulfide, and allicin, prepared by chemical synthesis or purification, researchers found that alliin showed a better-scavenged superoxide property, particularly in hydroxyl radicals compared to others compound.

Allicin, a derivative of alliin suppressed the formation of superoxide by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, probably via a thiol and allicin exchange mechanism in the prevention of formation of free radicals.

However, Alliin and allicin did not prevent induced microsomal lipid peroxidation.

In other words, alliin is antioxidants with the free radical scavenging property.

Dr. Chung LY said in the final report, "allyl disulfide, alliin, allicin, and allyl cysteine exhibit different patterns of antioxidant activities as protective compounds against free radical damage".

In bone resorption associated with osteoclast differentiation and fusion, alliin (S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxides, SACSO) displayed a significant antioxidant activity by inhibiting the osteoclastogenesis with a dose-dependent manner via blocking the (c-Fos-NFATc1) signaling pathway involved cell differentiation and fusion.

Furthermore, alliin protected the bone density by decreasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting the expression of (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)) protein associated with elevated ROS reactive oxygen.

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of diseases involved in oxidative stress, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide by Chung LY. (PubMed)
(2) Alliin Attenuated RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species through Inhibiting Nox by Chen Y1,2, Sun J3, Dou C4, Li N5, Kang F6, Wang Y7, Cao Z8, Yang X9, Dong S. (PubMed)
(3) Free radicals, antioxidants, and functional foods: Impact on human health by V. Lobo, A. Patil, A. Phatak, and N. Chandra. (PubMed)

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