Monday, 19 August 2019

Cranberry Arrests Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

The women breasts are made of tissues that produce milk (glandular tissue) and fat. The size of a woman breast is totally depending on the amount of fat in the breast.

Cancer is a class of medical condition associated with cell growth uncontrollably in the specific tissue of the gland and organ.

Breast cancer is a medical condition caused by cell growth irregularly due to the alternation of cell DNA that often begins in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk.

At the advanced stage after colonizing the deeper layer tissues to form a tumor through proliferation, invasive cancer cells can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissues and organs, leading to secondary metastasis.

Most common secondary cancers spread by primary breast cancer are bone, liver, lung and brain cancer.

According to the statistics, in the US,  approximately 268,600 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 2019,  along with 62,930 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.

The lifetime the risk of getting invasive breast cancer in the North America of a woman is 1/8.

The 5 years survival rate of breast cancer diagnosed in the localized stage is 100%.

The exact causes of breast cancer are not identified. Epidemiologically, aging, genetic proposition, female gender, family history, history of pregnancy, dense breast tissue and smoking are some of the most prevalent factors that are found patient with the disease.

However, some researchers in the investigated the risk of breast cancer in obese patients suggested that the promotion of a high-fat diet that causes the increased incidences of obesity in the US may have a strongly negative impact to induce the onset of breast cancer in women.

Dr. Manuel Picon‐Ruiz, the lead scientist wrote, "Recent decades have seen an unprecedented rise in obesity, and the health impact thereof is increasingly evident. In 2014, worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25‐29.9 kg/m2), and of these, over 600 million were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)".
And, "Obesity is associated both with a higher risk of developing breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women and with worse disease outcome for women of all ages".

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of cancer, researchers examined the effect of the efficacy of cranberry phytochemical extracts significantly inhibited human breast cancer MCF-7 cell.

According to the tested differentiation, at doses of 5 to 30mg/mL, cranberry phytochemical extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, after exposure for 4h.

Compared to the control group, cranberry phytochemical extracts at a dose of 50mg/mL exhibited additional 25% higher ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells.

Furthermore, at doses from 10 to 50mg/mL cranberry phytochemical extracts exerted significantly arrested MCF-7 cells at G0/G1 phase.

Moreover, A constant increasing pattern of the G1/S index was observed in the cranberry extract treatment group compared to the decrease of G1/S ratio of the control group between 10 and 24h treatment.

Additionally, according to the cell cycle division analysis, cranberry extracts induced cell cycle arrest in the G1/S in MCF-7 cells was approximately 6 times higher than that of the control group.

Based on the findings, researchers after taking other factors into account said," These results suggest that cranberry phytochemical extracts possess the ability to suppress the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to both the initiation of apoptosis and the G1 phase arrest".

Taken altogether, cranberry may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by Sun J1, Hai Liu R. (PubMed)
(2) Obesity and adverse breast cancer risk and outcome: Mechanistic insights and strategies for intervention by Manuel Picon‐Ruiz, PhD, 1 Cynthia Morata‐Tarifa, PhD, 2 Janeiro J. Valle‐Goffin, MD, 3Eitan R. Friedman, MD, 4 and Joyce M. Slingerland, MD, PhD. (PMC)

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