Monday, 26 August 2019

Herbal Turmeric, the Best Anti-Neuroinflammatory Remedy

By Kyle J. Norton

Neuroinflammation is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the central nervous tissues, including the brain and spinal cord.

There many risk factors associated with the onset of neuroinflammation similar to other tissues inflammation, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity.

Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system in which the macrophages of the first defense stimulates the production of blood palette to cover the wound in case of injury and production of proinflammatory cytokines to the site of infection to fence off the foreign pathogens. 

Inflammation also can be triggered by the immune mistakenly attacked the body tissues in cases of autoimmune disease.

The neuroinflammatory disease can be acute or chronic. Chronic neuroinflammation that leads to the activation of glial cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cytokines into the brain is found to associate with neurodegenerative diseases.

Most cases of the neuroinflammatory disease associated with the loss of neuronal structure and function.can be measured by the typical inflammatory markers, including CSF Aβ1-42, tau and p-tau181, and a panel of 37 neuroinflammatory markers in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Dr. WEI-WEI CHEN, the lead scientist in the investigation of the role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, wrote, "recent data have identified the inflammatory process as being closely linked with multiple neurodegenerative pathways, which are associated with depression, a consequence of neurodegenerative disease".

And, "Accordingly, pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the pathophysiology of depression and dementia. These data suggest that the role of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration must be fully elucidated, since pro-inflammatory agents, which are the causative effects of neuroinflammation, occur widely, particularly in the elderly in whom inflammatory mechanisms are linked to the pathogenesis of functional and mental impairments".

In other words, an acute neuroinflammatory response that, if unresolved, can lead to chronic neuroinflammation, leading to chronic low-grade neurodegenerative disease.

Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia.

The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and for the treatment of flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.

In the urgency to discover a natural ingredient for the treatment of neuroinflammation, researchers examined the neuron protective activity on curcumin, amain curcuminoid present in turmeric.

According to the tested assays, curcumin dose-dependently inhibited Pam3CSK4, the inflammatory mediators induced the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as nitric oxide, PGE2, and TNF-α secretion.

The secretion of inflammatory mediators was stimulated by the increase in the expression of HO-1, a cytoprotective and antiapoptotic enzyme, which plays an important protective role by modulating oxidative stress.

Furthermore, curcumin also inhibited neuroinflammation by decreasing the production of macrophages found in the central nervous system (CNS) induced by the inflammatory mediators.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "The results of the present study suggest that curcumin may be a novel treatment for neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegenerative disorders".

In vivo, curcumin also exerted a significantly anti-nociceptive and anti-neuroinflammatory effect on arthritic pain in rats.

Moreover, repeated intrathecal injection of curcumin reversed CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity with affecting the joint edema.

Levels of proinflammation observed by the presence of glial cells and the production of inflammatory mediators induced by the injection of CFA were reduced by the injection of curcumin.

Additonally, the protein associated with the regulation of the migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in the spinal cord was also inhibited in the curcumin treatment group.

Dr. Chen JJ, the lead scientist said, " intrathecal curcumin attenuates arthritic pain by inhibiting glial activation and the production of inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord, suggesting a new application of curcumin for the treatment of arthritic pain".

Taken altogether, turmeric processed a high amount of bioactive compound curcumin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of neuroinflammation, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of turmeric in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of curcumin on Pam3CSK4-stimulated microglial cells by Jin M1, Park SY2, Shen Q1, Lai Y1, Ou X1, Mao Z1, Lin D1, Yu Y1, Zhang W. (PubMed)
(2) Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis by Chen JJ1, Dai L2, Zhao LX3, Zhu X4, Cao S4, Gao YJ. (PubMed)
(3) Role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases (Review) by WEI-WEI CHEN, XIA ZHANG, and WEN-JUAN HUANG. (PMC)

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