Monday, 12 August 2019

Phytochemical Carotenoids Block the Onset of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with DICER1 rs3742330 Genotypeancer

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancer is a class of disease associated with irregular cell growth in the tissue of organs.

The colon-rectum formed a part of the digestive system is involved in the absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be reabsorbed and reused by the body.

Colorectal cancer is cancer located in the colon or rectum caused alternation of cell DNA. Most cases of colorectal cancer begin in the cells on the surface of inner ling tissue in either the colon or rectum, before multiplying to form a tumor.

Colorectal cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progressing cancer.
The disease is also the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including the US and Canada.

According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, in the US,
101,420 new cases of colon cancer and 44,180 new cases of rectal cancer will be diagnosed in 2019.
Additionally, colorectal cancer will also cause the death of 51,020 Americans in 2019.

Overall, the lifetime risk of colorectal cancer developing is 1 in 22 (4.49%) in men and 1 in 24 (4.15%) in women. 

Besides adenocarcinomas, the common type of colorectal cancer originated in epithelium tissues and squamous cells that make up the bowel lining together with the gland cells, other types of colorectal tumors include
* Carcinoid
Carcinoid is an unusual type of slow growth neuroendocrine tumor in the hormone-producing tissue in the digestive system. the condition may look benign but can spread to other parts of the body as they grow

* Leiomyosarcomas
Leiomyosarcomas are the rare and resistant types of colorectal cancer and generally not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation. They are a malignant abnormal mass of tissue of smooth muscles of the colon, comprising between 5–10% of soft tissue sarcomas.

* Lymphomas
Bowel lymphomas are rare and more likely to start in the rectum rather in the colon. Many patients with lymphomas are diagnosed in the late stage and already spread to other organs.

* Melanomas
Melanomas are a rare malignant tumor of cells that produce the dark pigment. This type of bowel cancer usually originates from somewhere else and then spread to the bowel.

Carotenoids is a class of mainly yellow, orange, or red fat-soluble pigments, including lycopene and carotene, found abundantly in ripe tomato, pumpkins, carrots, corn, and daffodils.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of colorectal cancer, researchers investigated whether dietary lutein/zeaxanthin, the major compounds found in carotenoid intake affect colorectal cancer risk in patients with a DICER1 rs3742330 polymorphism.

The experiment included 923 colorectal cancer patients and 1,846 controls based on eligibility criteria, that answered the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and the DICER1 rs3742330 genotype.

Based on the returned questionnaires differentiation, the highest quartile of lutein/zeaxanthin consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk.

In genotype analysis, patients who carry G allele (AG + GG) showed a significantly reduced colorectal cancer incidence compared to that of AA carriers.

Furthermore, patients with G allele (AG + GG) along with high lutein/zeaxanthin consumption were markedly associated with a decreased colorectal cancer risk, particularly in rectal cancer compared to that of AA carriers with low lutein/zeaxanthin intakes.

The results strongly suggested that carotenoids major compounds lutein/zeaxanthin has a strong implication on the colorectal cancer risk in patients with DICER1 rs3742330 genotype.

Dr. Kim J, the lead scientist after taking into account co and confounders wrote in the final report, " colorectal cancer risk was related to an interactive effect between dietary lutein/zeaxanthin intake and the DICER1 rs3742330 polymorphism".

Taken altogether, carotenoids may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of carotenoids in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition by Leenders M1, Leufkens AM, Siersema PD, van Duijnhoven FJ, Vrieling A, Hulshof PJ, van Gils CH, Overvad K, Roswall N, Kyrø C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagerhazzi G, Cadeau C, Kühn T, Johnson T, Boeing H, Aleksandrova K, Trichopoulou A, Klinaki E, Androulidaki A, Palli D, Grioni S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Bakker MF, Skeie G, Weiderpass E, Jakszyn P, Barricarte A, María Huerta J, Molina-Montes E, Argüelles M, Johansson I, Ljuslinder I, Key TJ, Bradbury KE, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Ferrari P, Duarte-Salles T, Jenab M, Gunter MJ, Vergnaud AC, Wark PA, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. (PubMed)
(2) Antiproliferative effects of carotenoids extracted from Chlorella ellipsoidea and Chlorella vulgaris on human colon cancer cells by Cha KH1, Koo SY, Lee DU. (PubMed)

Rectal cancer
(1) (1) Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition by Leenders M1, Leufkens AM, Siersema PD, van Duijnhoven FJ, Vrieling A, Hulshof PJ, van Gils CH, Overvad K, Roswall N, Kyrø C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagerhazzi G, Cadeau C, Kühn T, Johnson T, Boeing H, Aleksandrova K, Trichopoulou A, Klinaki E, Androulidaki A, Palli D, Grioni S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Bakker MF, Skeie G, Weiderpass E, Jakszyn P, Barricarte A, María Huerta J, Molina-Montes E, Argüelles M, Johansson I, Ljuslinder I, Key TJ, Bradbury KE, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Ferrari P, Duarte-Salles T, Jenab M, Gunter MJ, Vergnaud AC, Wark PA, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. (PubMed)
(2) Dietary Lutein Plus Zeaxanthin Intake and DICER1 rs3742330 A > G Polymorphism Relative to Colorectal Cancer Risk by Kim J1, Lee J1, Oh JH2, Chang HJ2, Sohn DK2, Kwon O3, Shin A4, Kim J. (PubMed)
(3) Bowel (Colorectal ) Cancer by Kyle J. Norton

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