Wednesday, 14 August 2019

Antioxidants Betaxanthins Block the Gene Associated with Colon Cancer Developing

By Kyle J. Norton

Primary cancer is a class of chronic disease caused by cells growth disorderly and irregularly in the tissue of a specific organ as a result of the alternation of DNA.

Colon formed part of the digestive system including large intestine that connects to the small intestines and rectum plays a critical role to reabsorb fluids and process waste products from the body and prepare for its elimination through the rectum.

Colon cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth irregularly due to the alternation of DNA in the colon tissue.

Most cases of colon cancer start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining of the colon before penetrating into deeper layers to form a tumor through proliferating.

However, at the advanced stage, the cancerous colon cells in the colon can travel a distance far away to infect other healthy tissue and organ.

Furthermore, at this stage, the overgrowth can cause localized severe pain and bleeding as the proliferation of cancer have suppressed the nearby nerve cells and blood vessels, accompanied by the general symptoms shared by other types of cancer.

Researchers do not know the exact causes of the disease. A history of polyps, ethnicity, high-fat diet and low fiber, aging, the long-term infection of colon diseases are some of the prevalent risk factors associated with the onset and progression of colon cancer.

Believe it or not, colon cancer is the most slowing cancer and proliferates in a  predictable way. In some patients, cancer cells can present in the colon more than 20 years before being diagnosed.

Out of that group of risk factors, the increase in age has been under intensified studies by many scientists.

According to the statistic, colorectal cancer is the third common cancer in the US. The median age at diagnosis for colon cancer is 68 in men and 72 in women.

In other words, most cases of colon cancer are found in the aging population in the US.

Early diagnosis of colon cancer can increase the 5 years of survival rate. Truly, in the 39% of colon cancer diagnosed at the localized-stage disease, the five and ten years survival rate are 90%.

Dr. and colleagues wrote, "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. As society ages, the number of elderly patients with CRC will increase. The percentage of patients with right-sided colon cancer and the incidence of microsatellite instability is higher in elderly than in younger patients with CRC.".

And, "Moreover, the higher incidence of comorbid diseases in elderly patients indicates the need for less invasive treatment strategies".

These results furtherly confirm the prognosis of colon cancer in the aging population. However, most aging population do not develop colon cancer.

Betaxanthins are Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, Sicilian prickly pear, etc.

With an aim to find a potent compound for the promotion of colon health, researchers examined the effects of indicaxanthin, a constituent of betaxanthins on the human colon cancer cell line CACO2.

In colon cancer lines induced demethylation, the chemical process that causes the removal of a methyl group (CH3) to initiate some methylation-silenced onco-suppressor genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, indicaxanthin exhibited anti-proliferative activity in all cell lines but HT29 and cancer cell line involved in hypermethylated tumor-suppressor genes(SFRP1 and HPP1).

Furthermore, although DNMT gene expression that provides instructions for making an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase 1 were increased by the injection of indicaxanthin, observed by the increased the expression of genes involved in DNA demethylation, its activity associated with gene suppression was inhibited by the phytochemical.

The results strongly suggested that indicaxanthin exerts a stable binding of the DNMT1 undergoing a chemical reaction against the initiation of colon cancer cell proliferation.

Taken altogether, Betaxanthins processed the abundantly indicaxanthin may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Phytochemical Indicaxanthin Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth and Affects the DNA Methylation Status by Influencing Epigenetically Modifying Enzyme Expression and Activity by Naselli F1, Belshaw NJ, Gentile C, Tutone M, Tesoriere L, Livrea MA, Caradonna F. (PubMed)
(2) Treatment of Elderly Patients with Colorectal Cancer by Yoshiro Itatani, Kenji Kawada, and Yoshiharu Sakai. (PMC)

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