Saturday, 17 August 2019

Cranberry Protects the Integrity of Bladder Cells Against Bladder Cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

The bladder formed part of the secretory system is a muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone.

The bladder has 2 main functions that store the urine made in the kidneys and control urinary secretion.

Cancer is a group of chronic diseases characterized by cell growth disorderly that starts on the surface of the inner lining tissue of a specific tissue of a gland or organ.

Bladder cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects men twice as frequently as it affects women, Bladder cancer usually starts from the cells on the surface of inner tissue that the lines the bladder.

Bladder cancer depending on the origination of cancer beginning can be classified into
* Transitional cell carcinoma
In the early stage of bladder cancer, normal cells become cancerous in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder which can change shape and stretch without breaking apart. In other words, cancer in this stage is able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when the bladder is emptied. 
More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells

*  Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer begins in squamous cells found in the tissues of the surface of the bladder, due to long-term infection or irritation. About 8 percent of people with bladder cancers begin squamous cells.

* Adenocarcinoma
Cancer originates from the glandular tissue of the bladder, including the surface layer of skin, glands and a variety of other tissue, due to long-term irritation and inflammation. Only 2 percent of people with the condition have a third bladder cancer type.

The exact causes of bladder cancer are unidentified. However, smoking has been associated with a significant factor that causes the onset of the disease.

Dr. Neal D Freedman, the lead scientist wrote, "Previous studies indicate that the population attributable risk of bladder cancer for tobacco smoking is 50–65% in men and 20–30% in women and that current cigarette smoking triples bladder cancer risk relative to never smoking".

And, "Over the last 30 years, incidence rates have remained stable in the United States (men: 123.8/100,000 person-years to 142.2/100,000 person-years; women: 32.5/100,000 person-years to 33.2/100,000 person-years)".

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of bladder cancer, researchers examined the anti-proliferative activities of cranberry derived flavonoids on human bladder tumor cell lines (RT4, SCABER, and SW-780) and non-tumorigenic immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC).

According to the tested analysis,
* Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin), myricetin and quercetin found in cranberry showed strong concentration-dependent cell growth inhibitory activities in bladder cancer cells with IC50 values in a range of 8-92 μM compared to others.

* Isorhamnetin and myricetin had very low inhibitory activity against SV-HUC even at very high concentrations (>200 μM) compared to bladder cancer cells.

These results strongly suggested that isorhamnetin and myricetin inhibited bladder cancer cells without causing harm to the nearby healthy cells.

Furthermore, according to the results of SW-780 cells incubated with the aforementioned compounds, hyperoside, a member of 3-O-galactoside of quercetin undergoes relatively less metabolic biotransformation (methylation, glucuronidation and quinone formation) compared to quercetin 3-O-glucoside.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "isorhamnetin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside may be the active forms of quercetin in the prevention of bladder cancer".

Taken altogether, cranberry processed abundantly bioactive compounds may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Metabolism and growth inhibitory activity of cranberry derived flavonoids in bladder cancer cells by Prasain JK1, Rajbhandari R1, Keeton AB2, Piazza GA2, Barnes S. (PubMed)
(2) Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the CancerInhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents by Weh KM1, Clarke J2,3,4, Kresty LA. (PubMed)
(3) Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women by Neal D Freedman, PhD, MPH,1 Debra T Silverman, ScD, ScM,1 Albert R Hollenbeck, PhD,2Arthur Schatzkin, MD, DrPH,1 and Christian C Abnet, PhD, MPH. (PMC)

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