Wednesday, 21 August 2019

Cranberry Inhibits the Risk and Onset of Oral Cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

The mouth formed part of the digestive system is an oval-shaped cavity inside the skull that processes 2 main functions of eating and speaking.

Cancer is a group of chronic diseases characterized by cell growth disorderly that starts on the surface of the inner lining tissue of the mouth.

Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).

According to the statistics provided by the Canadian Cancer Society, in 2017, 4,700 Canadians were diagnosed with oral cancer, including 3,250 men and 1,450 women. In the same year,  the disease also caused the death of 1,250 Canadians.

The exact causes of oral cancer are unknown. Epidemiologically, aging, smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, chewing tobacco and betel nut, long-term use of mouth wash, male ganders are some of the most prevalent factors found in patients with the disease.

Some researchers suggested that poor hygiene that leads to advanced gingivitis may be a major culprit that causes the onset of oral cancer.

Dr. Roshni Ramesh, the lead scientist wrote, "Gingival enlargements are frequently encountered in dental practice. There are different types of gingival enlargements and they vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them".

And, "Oral cancers especially squamous cell carcinomas present with variations in clinical presentation and the sites affected".
Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of cancer, researchers examined the effect of proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary cranberries and grapes on oral cancer.

The oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25 were used to compare the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers.

According to the tested analysis, administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner showed significant inhibition of the proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines.

Proteins associated with the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis were significantly stimulated by the injection of cranberry and grape seed extracts.

The pathways associated with cancer cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle division were also inhibited by both extracts.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers".

And, "cranberry and grape seed extract not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines".

Taken altogether, cranberry may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.



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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas by Chatelain K1, Phippen S, McCabe J, Teeters CA, O'Malley S, Kingsley K. (PubMed)
(2) Oral squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as gingival overgrowth by Roshni Ramesh1 and Arun Sadasivan. (PMC)

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