Wednesday, 28 August 2019

Berry Extract (Cranberry) Inhibits β-Amyloid Aggregation

By Kyle J. Norton

Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is the main component of the amyloid plaques that cause the gradual death of neurons, leading to the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is a common form of dementia or neurodegenerative disease found in the elderly.

Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia correlated with major reductions of neurons to the respective target areas, named after German physician Alois Alzheimer.

According to the statistics, the disease is most prevalent in the elderly. Approximately 5.7 million Americans of all ages are living with Alzheimer's. 15.9 million family caregivers provide an estimated 18.2 billion hours and $230 billion to people with dementia worldwide.

 Alzheimer's disease is caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that affect the neurons of the brain over time. However, less 10% of patients with AD are associated with a genetic preposition. Patients with such mutated genes on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1are virtually guaranteed to develop the disease.

More precisely, Alzheimer's disease is caused by the gradual loss of neuron functioning that usually starts with the early symptom of the difficulty of remembering recent events and worsens over time.

Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing cognitive modalities severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong hobbies or social life. Alzheimer's gets worse over time, and it is fatal.

Dementia is a group of neurodegenerative diseases caused by a decline in mental ability in the older population that is severe enough to interfere with daily life, such as memory loss.

Compared to dementia, neurological disorders are a class of brain disease associated with reduced function of the brain, depending on the region of the neurons that were affected.

Dr. Rudolph E. Tanzi said, "The inheritance of AD exhibits a dichotomous pattern. On one hand, rare mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 virtually guarantee early-onset (<60 years) familial AD, which represents ∼5% of AD. On the other hand, common gene polymorphisms, such as the ε4 and ε2 variants of the APOE gene, can influence susceptibility for ∼50% of the common late-onset AD".

And, " These four genes account for 30%–50% of the inheritability of AD".

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, researchers examined the effect of cranberry extract (CE) on the Alzheimer's disease (AD)associated with the aggregation and toxicity of proteins β-amyloid (Aβ).

The study is to compare the effects of berry crude extracts (CE) that yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts.

According to the tested analysis, the berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects, compared to  ACFs.

Furthermore, the berry ACEs at a dose of 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO)-induced Aβ fibrillation associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

In BV-2 microglia, the berry ACEs at a dose of 20 μg/mL reduced H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species production and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.".

Taken altogether, berries including cranberry processed abundantly anthocyanins may be considered remedies for the prevention of β-Amyloid Aggregation against the onset of AD, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects by Ma H1,2,3, Johnson SL4,5, Liu W6, DaSilva NA7,8, Meschwitz S9, Dain JA10, Seeram NP. (PubMed)
(2) The Genetics of Alzheimer Disease by Rudolph E. Tanzi. (NCBI)

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