Thursday, 15 August 2019

Indicaxanthin, the Free Radical-Scavenger

By Kyle J. Norton

Free radical scavengers are antioxidants which process a function to protect the body against the oxidative stress by inhibiting free radical oxidation before they can facilitate a chain reaction or by stopping the chain reaction before they can cause damage to the body.

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules. Internally, they are produced by our body cell metabolism. Externally, free radical can enter our body from the environment sources, such as the air we breathe, the food we eat and the water we drink.

More precisely, any chemicals compounds or molecules which process oxygen atom can be free radicals after chemical interaction.

Believe it or not, free radicals in moderate amount has benefits the body functioning, such as NO for vascular-relaxation.

However, without interfering by the antioxidant, overexpression of free radicals have been found epidemiologically to damage the lipid, and protein and induce the alternation of healthy cell DNA, leading to chronic diseases, including arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalanced ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidants enzymes in the body.

Out of all damages caused by overexpression of free radicals, some researchers suggested that lipid peroxidation induced by free radical has a strong implication in the pathogenesis of various disorders and diseases.

Dr. Kota V. Ramana, the lead scientist in the joint study led by the University of Texas Medical Branch, wrote, "Lipid peroxidation is a complex chain reaction process due to the oxygen-free radicals mediated attack of cell membrane lipids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulting in cell damage and dysfunction".

And, "Indeed, a number of preclinical and clinical studies suggest the involvement of lipid peroxidation products in numerous pathological conditions such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer".

In other words, an antioxidant with free radical scavenging activity may protect the body against the damage of various cellular components, including proteins, lipids, and DNA in the initiation of diseases.

Indicaxanthin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belongings to the group of Betalains found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of diseases involved in oxidative stress, researchers examined the free radical-scavenging activity of indicaxanthin.

According to the tested analysis on the reaction of the phytochemical indicaxanthin with lipoperoxyl radicals generated in methyl linoleate methanol solution by 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), and in aqueous soybean phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride,
* Indicaxanthin incorporated in liposomes prevented lipid oxidation.

* The free radical scavenging property was found to be concentration-dependent, but not linearly related to the phytochemical concentration.

* In liposome, indicaxanthin showed a significant delay against oxidation, particularly in that of the lower the concentration.

* However, in the corporation with alpha-tocopherol, Indicaxanthin exhibited cooperative antioxidant effects and reciprocal protective interactions.

* The increase of the ratio (indicaxanthin)/(alpha-tocopherol).showed a significant decrease in the extent of synergistic effects.

Taken altogether, indicaxanthin processes strong free radical scavenging activity, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Kinetics of the lipoperoxyl radical-scavenging activity of indicaxanthin in solution and unilamellar liposomes by Tesoriere L1, Allegra M, Butera D, Gentile C, Livrea MA. (PubMed)
(2) Lipid Peroxidation Products in Human Health and Disease 2014 by Kota V. Ramana, 1 ,* Sanjay Srivastava, 2 and Sharad S. Singhal. (PMC)

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