Saturday, 31 August 2019

Tomato/Lycopene the Anti Cancers Functional Food

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancers are a class of diseases caused by irregular cell growth in the tissue or organ in the body.

According to the Canadian Cancer Society, in 2017, over 200,000 new cases of cancer were diagnosed and 80,800 patients died from the disease in the same year.

Lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer were accounted for about half of all cancer diagnoses and deaths.
Believe it or not, 1 in 2 Canadian adults will develop cancer in their lifetimes and 1 in 4 will die of the disease.

At the early stage, patients with cancer may not experience any symptoms due to the very small size of the tumor and the cancer are still on the surface in the inner lining tissues. However, at the late stage after colonizing the complete organ, cancer cell not can travel a distance away from the originated site to affect other healthy tissue and organ, they can also cause some related and specific symptoms accompanied by general symptoms associated with other types of cancer.

Cancer is classified by the followings
* Size of the cancer

* Invasive or not

* Whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes

* Whether cancer has spread to the distance parts or organs of the body.

There are 4 stages of breast cancer in TNM rating (where T is referred for tumor size, N is referred for Lymph Node status, M is referred for invasive or not)

# T: Tumor Size is divided into four classes: T-1 is between 0 - 2 cms, T-2 is between 2 - 5 cms, T-3 is > 5cms, and T-4 is a tumor of any size growing into the chest wall or skin, including inflammatory breast cancer.
#N: No swollen nodes: N-0, some swelling but negative node (not cancerous): N-1a, swelling nodes and positive node (cancerous): N-1b, quite swollen and bunched together: N-2, quite swollen and near the collarbone: N-3.
# M: if no cancer cell is found: M-0, cancer cells found: M-1.

The stages of cancer are
* Stage 1T-1 tumor and clear lymph nodes with no evidence of spreading (M-0), or T-1N-0M-0.
* Stage 2
Stage 2 is the combination of a combination of T-1, T-2, or T-3 tumor, N-0. N-1a and N-1b but no spreading (M-0)
* Stage 3
Stage 3 is the combination of all T or N but no spreading (M-0)
* Stage 4
Stage 4 is the combination of T, N-1a, N-1b, N-2, N-3, and M-1

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

In the urgency to find a potential ingredient for the treatment of cancer with little or no side effect, researchers examined the effect of a novel strategy of formulating the lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles (LYC-WPI-NPs) ability for adenosine deaminase inhibition of the regression of the tumor with the percent lycopene entrapment in the range to 50 and 65%.

In the chemical release analysis, LYC-WPI-NPs enhanced the oral bioavailability of lycopene by controlling its release through the absorption in the lymphatic pathways.

According to the MTT based colorimetric assay, LYC-WPI-NPs exerted significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro.

In an animal model induced breast cancer, LYC-WPI-NPsd also demonstrated it's prophylactic anticancer efficacy without causing the death of normal cells.

Based on the findings, researchers wrote in the final paper, "Conclusively, it may quite reasonable that lycopene loaded protein nanoparticles are competent to improve the biopharmaceutical attributes of lycopene and demonstrated prophylactic anticancer activity, decrease tumor proliferation and increase the survival rate of treated animals".

In other words, LYC-WPI-NPs significantly enhanced the lycopene anti-cancer biopharmaceutic activity compared to oral administration as seen in an animal model.

Taken altogether, tomatoes may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review by Perveen R1, Suleria HA, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Pasha I, Ahmad S. (PubMed)
(2) Lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles: An innovative endeavor for enhanced bioavailability of lycopene and anti-cancer activity by Jain A1, Sharma G2, Ghoshal G3, Kesharwani P4, Singh B5, Shivhare US4, Katare OP. (PubMed)

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