Thursday, 29 August 2019

Cucumber's Bioactive Compound Cucurbitacin B (CuB) Exerts Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect in Diabetics

By Kyle J. Norton

Hypoglycemia is abnormally high blood glucose levels in the bloodstream in diabetes.

Most cases of hyperglycemia are associated with poor management of blood sugar levels as a result of poor diet and poor practice of medicine intake and insulin injection.

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of diabetes caused by the inability of the body to convert glucose to energy or make the hormone insulin.

Most common and early signs of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and/or hunger, frequent urination, sugar in your urine, fatigue.

In severe cases, patients with hyperglycemia may also experience symptoms of headache and blurred vision.

Long-term untreated hyperglycemia may induce complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, ner, es and heart.
In severe case, hyperglycemia can also lead to serious complications that require emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. 

Women who are nondiabetics before pregnancy and experience gestation hyperglycemia are likely to develop diabetes in the later days.

Believe it or not, hyperglycemia can also occur in people without diabetes due to stress. According to the study, people who are nondiabetics and experience abnormally high blood glucose are most likely to develop diabetes later in life.

According to the statistics, In 2015, approximately 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the population, had diabetes. Approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes.

Some researchers suggested that by changing lifestyle with moderate exercise, hyperglycemia can be manageable in type II diabetes.

Dr. Salwa W. Rizkalla wrote, " Only 4 weeks of a (low GI diet) LGI diet was able to improve glycemic control, glucose utilization, some lipid profiles, and the capacity for fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes. Even if changes in glycemic control were modest during the 4-week period, the use of an LGI diet in a longer-term manner might play an important role in the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related disorders"

The cucumber plant is a species of Cucumis Sativus, belongings to the family Cucurbitaceae and native to Western Asia. It is a creeping vine with roots in the ground and grows up with the support of frames.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient for the prevention of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes, researchers examined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB) isolated from cucumber induced hypoglycemic effect in an animal model.

On mice, induced diabetes, administration of Cucurbitacin B (CuB) composed of triterpenoid structure stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway which has been found to contribute to the correction of insulin resistance overexpression in hyperglycemia.

CuB also ameliorated hyperglycemia not only by activating intestinal AMPK levels and also by inducing production of plasma GLP-1 associated with the improvement of insulin-releasing by pancreatic β-cells.

However, GLP-1 mimetic medicines although exerted a similar effect compared to that of natural GLP-1, it induced clinical side effects, such as autoimmune hepatitis, acute kidney injury, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.

Interestingly, the efficacy of hypoglycemic activity of CuB decreased significantly in dorsomorphin- (a selective inhibitor of the BMP pathway involved in the expression of cytokines) injected mice and α-gustducin null mice.

In differentiated NCI-H716 cell line, CuB inhibited hyperglycemia involved in activation of AMPK through α-gustducin and Gβγ-signaling of taste receptors in signaling secretion of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

Where taste receptors are found in several organs including tongue to colon and have the diverse functions dependent on specific cell type.

In enteroendocrine L cells, stimulated taste receptor signaling plays a critical role in inducing incretin hormones, including GLP-1.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "CuB represents novel hypoglycemic agents by activation of AMPK and stimulation of GLP-1 in differentiated enteroendocrine L-cells".

Taken altogether, cucumber processed high levels of CuB may be used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetics, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of CuB in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Cucurbitacin B Induces Hypoglycemic Effect in Diabetic Mice by Regulation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 via Bitter Taste Receptor Signaling by Kim KH1,2, Lee IS1,2, Park JY1,2, Kim Y1,2, An EJ1,2, Jang HJ. (PubMed)
(2) Improved Plasma Glucose Control, Whole-Body Glucose Utilization, and Lipid Profile on a Low-Glycemic Index Diet in Type 2 Diabetic Men by

  • Salwa W. Rizkalla, MD, PHD12
  • Laika Taghrid, MD1
  • Muriel Laromiguiere, PharmD, PHD3
  • Dorothée Huet, MD1
  • Josette Boillot, PHD1
  • Aude Rigoir, RN1
  • Fabienne Elgrably, MD1 and 
  • Gerard Slama, MD. (the American Diabetes Association)

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