Saturday, 14 October 2017

Food Therapy: Coffee and Coffee Caffeine in Risk of Mutagenesis?

By Kyle J. Norton

Coffee, second to green tea, is a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West,  made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

Coffee and coffee caffeine may have a direct effect in mutagenicity in bacteria and fungi, but lesser in mammalian cells, a France study suggested.

According to the Université de Nancy, Coffee and caffeine showed a significant effect in gene mutation in bacteria and fungi, but in high concentrations, they expressed also a similarly mutagenic influence to mammalian cells in culture.

The mutagenic activity of caffeine can be observed through its potentiate in induced chromosomal aberrations through transforming sublethal damage of mutagenic agents into lethal damage. But conversely, intake of coffee and caffeine denostrated a protective effect in inhibit these mutagenic properties through theirs' numerous chemicals depending to the time consumption in the presence of mutagenic agent.

Furthermore, the study also revealed that chemically reactive components such as aliphatic dicarbonyls from the caffeine were some of the culprits attributed to these mutagenic exhibition.

The findings suggested the duo effect of coffee and coffee caffeine on one hand, inhibited the gene mutation but on the hand displayed a significant mutagenic DNA damage to living organisms, but less in human even with moderated drinking habit.

Also in bacterial experiments, according to the observation from bacteria mutation assays, trigonelline, found in caffeine alone or in combination with most of the single amino acids found in caffeine and mixtures of amino acids, showed a potent mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains.

Dr. Wu X, the lead author said, "Trigonelline and amino acids are natural components in green coffee beans. Model systems mimicking coffee roasting were used to produce heated samples of trigonelline, amino acids and glucose".

Contractively, according to the coffee producing company, Nestlé Research Center, coffee intake have shown a strong effect in induced enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes and primary hepatocytes. 

In animal study, the experiment also found that coffee induce the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in promotion of cellular antioxidant defenses.

More importantly, coffee also exhibited chemoprotective effects of against toxic Aflatoxin B1 in duced genotoxicity in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes.

Taking altogether,  coffee and coffee showed conflict results in inhibited and exhibited mutagenesis, but epidemiological studies agreed that coffee decreased risk of genetoxicity against many chronic illness through regulating AFB1-DNA and protein.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review by Nehlig A1, Debry G.(PubMed)
(2) Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee? by Wu X1, Skog K, Jägerstad M.(PubMed)
(3) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver by Cavin C1, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B.(PubMed)

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