Friday, 27 October 2017

Food Therapy: Maternal Coffee > 4 Cups/day or Coffee Caffeine > 2 Cups/day Intake in Increased Risk of Congenital Malformations

By Kyle J. Norton

A renowned institute suggested that coffee consumption in high doses during pregnancy may have a directed influence in congenital malformations of fetus.

Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

Congenital malformation is birth defect with structural or functional abnormalities existed in the mother womb, before the infant was born.

In 755 pairs of mothers of malformed children and their controls personally interviewed soon after delivery consisted of mothers of children with 112 defects of the central nervous system, 241 orofacial clefts, 210 structural defects of the skeleton, and 143 cardiovascular malformations, researchers suggested that although coffee consumption during pregnancy was similar for the mothers of malformed or non-malformed children, high coffee drinking at least four cups of coffee a day displayed a significantly increased relative risk of 1.3, in compared to with those not consuming coffee of 0.7.

Other, in the case-control study assessed associations between maternal dietary caffeine and congenital LDs using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), with 844 LD cases and 8069 controls from 1997 to 2007, researchers, after adjusting to other risk factors found that total caffeine intake daily has a moderated effect in increased risk of congenital limb deficiencies (LDs) in compared to the lowest intake, regardless to amount of caffeine intake.

Further more, in multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures between 1988-2012, according to the returned questionnaire, caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy  > 2 cups per day may have a directed effect in increased risk of Spina bifida.

Spina bifida is a congenital defect of the spine induced paralysis of the lower limbs, and sometimes mental handicap.

Additionally, according to data extracted from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study in examine the associations between maternal self-reports of exposures and occurrence of choanal atresia in their offspring in 117 case and 8350 control mothers with deliveries from 1997 through 2007, researchers expressed that pre-pregnancy daily coffee intake of 3 or more cups displays a traumatic risk of offspring choanal atresia in compared to those who consumed less than 1 cup per day.

Choanal atresia is a congenital defect of the back of the nasal passage (choana) is blocked due to abnormal bony or soft tissue.

Taking altogether, intake of coffee more than 4 cups/day or Coffee Caffeine > 2 Cups/day during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors in increased risk of congenital malformations. Women with previous birth of congenital malformations, should reduce intake of coffee consumption to < or = 2 cups per day.

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Author biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Coffee consumption during pregnancy and selected congenital malformations: a nationwide case-control study by Kurppa K, Holmberg PC, Kuosma E, Saxén L.(PubMed)
(2) Maternal caffeine consumption and risk of congenital limb deficiencies by Chen L1, Bell EM, Browne ML, Druschel CM, Romitti PA, Schmidt RJ, Burns TL, Moslehi R, Olney RS; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.(PubMed)
(3) Risk of spina bifida and maternal cigarette, alcohol, and coffee use during the first month of pregnancy by Benedum CM1, Yazdy MM, Mitchell AA, Werler MM.(PubMed)

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