Sunday, 4 August 2019

Phytochemical Alliin Suppresses the Onset of Hyperlipidemia in Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Hyperlipidemia is a medical condition of abnormally high levels of cholesterol and fat in the bloodstream.

High blood cholesterol is the most common causes of hyperlipidemia. According to statistics provided by the CDC, more than 12% of adults age 20 and older are living with high blood cholesterol with a total cholesterol higher than 240 mg/dL.  and more than 18% had high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or “good”) cholesterol levels less than 40 mg/dL.

In other words, hyperlipidemia has a high prevalent ratio that affects over 100 millions of American and the condition is increasing at an alarming rate due to overweight and obesity.

Believe it or not, only half of the people with high blood cholesterol benefits from taking the lowering blood cholesterol medicine.

Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the liver. In a moderate amount, it helps to improve the gastrointestinal tract in food digestion, builds strong cell membranes, produces vitamin D and steroid hormones.

The healthy ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is ant numbers that are less than 4.

People with hyperlipidemia are asymptomatic. However, if untreated, the condition can cause cholesterol build-up on the arterial wall, leading to narrowing the arteries inducing blockage that causes heart disease and stroke.

Although there are many factors that can induce the expression of hyperlipidemia, some researchers suggested that the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades may have a significant implication on the onset of hyperlipidemia in the population in the US.

An article cited from the study by Tufts University wrote, "In two studies published online in the American Journal of Transplantation, researchers determined that hyperlipidemia accelerates heart-transplant rejection in mice. By using models that mimic the health conditions found in human transplant recipients, the researchers from Tufts determined that transplant rejection was accelerated whether the hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol and high triglycerides in the blood) was caused by genetics or solely by a high-fat diet".

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide, a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belongings to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, researchers examined the bioactive compound alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) derived from garlic in an animal model.

The study included C57BL/6J DIO mice randomly assigned to drinking water with or without alliin (0.1 mg/ml) for 8 weeks.

Based on the tested results, alliin exerted antihyperlipidemic activity with no significant effect on the body weight, adiposity or energy balance.

However, alliin treatment enhanced glucose homeostasis and increased insulin sensitivity.

The efficacy of alliin antihyperlipidemic effects was attributed to alliin induced balance of the intestinal microbiota composition, typically decreased Lachnospiraceae and increased Ruminococcaceae.

Collectively, researchers concluded," alliin has nutraceutical or even medicinal potential in the prevention of diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders".

In other to find out more information about alliin hypolipidemic activity, researchers examined the effects of alliin on the lipid profile in a rabbit model. 

The study included 19 New Zealand White rabbits were fed a cholesterol-rich diet (0.25% cholesterol) for 18 weeks with 10 rabbits received freshly produced allicin (3 mg/kg orally) starting at 8 weeks, and nine received a placebo.

According to the results from tested assays, allicin produced by reacting alliin showed a significant effect on serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations compared to control in days dependent manner.

Additionally, levels of serum high-density lipoprotein levels were also improved between groups.

Dr. Eilat S, the lead scientist wrote, in the final report, "allicin has a beneficial effect on the serum lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rabbits, and should be further tested clinically".

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia with no side effect, responding to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) (1) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of S-allyl-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) in DIO mice.
Zhai B1, Zhang C1, Sheng Y1, Zhao C2, He X1,3, Xu W1,3, Huang K1,3, Luo Y. (PubMed)
(2) Alteration of lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rabbits by allicin, an active constituent of garlic by Eilat S1, Oestraicher Y, Rabinkov A, Ohad D, Mirelman D, Battler A, Eldar M, Vered Z.(PubMed)
(3) Hyperlipidemia, caused by a high-fat diet, aggressively accelerates organ rejection by Tufts University (Science News)

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