Sunday, 7 April 2019

Phytochemical 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, The Potential Anti Cancers Bioactive Compound with No Side Effects, Scientists Say

By Kyle J. Norton 

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM may have a p[otential effect on the treatment of cancer with no side effects, according to studies.

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the cell growth uncontrollably in the tissue of certain organs, due to the alternation of cell DNA.

Epidemiologically, researchers do not the exact causes of cancer. They cannot explain why people with the same health conditions in the same family, some are prone to the disease while others do not.

Most cases of cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining tissue of an organ and at the advanced stage, cancer cells can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other tissues and organs through the circulation of blood and fluids, leading to secondary metastasis.

Cancer diagnosed at the early stage can have a survival rate up to 100%, depending on the type of cancer.

All cancers shared the general symptoms of unintended weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue, and tiredness and gastrointestinal discomforts.

Furthermore, most cancers at the early stage do not induce any symptoms, however, at the later stage, the overgrowth tumor may press on the nearby blood vessels and nerve cells, leading to severe bleeding and pain.

Although there are several risk factors associated with the onset of cancer, some researchers suggested the increased in aging that leads to a number of abnormal alternations may be one of the major causes.

Dr. Jan R. Aunan, the lead scientist wrote in the study of the biological role of age and cancer, "Aging is the inevitable time-dependent decline in physiological organ function and is a major risk factor for cancer development".

And, "Mechanisms of aging are also found to occur in carcinogenesis, albeit with shared or divergent end-results. It is now clear that aging and cancer development either share or diverge in several disease mechanisms. Such mechanisms include the role of genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, loss of proteostasis, decreased nutrient sensing and altered metabolism, but also cellular senescence and stem cell function".

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

Scientists in the concern of the side effect of chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer examined the effects of I3C and its dimeric product, 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) anti-proliferative and anti-cancer activities against human cancer cells.

Application of I3C and its dimeric product, 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) exerted a strong activity in the inhibition of altered expression and exhibition of the functions of proteins associated with cell cycle arrest.

 I3C and its dimeric product, 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) deactivated the signal transduction pathways in stimulation of cancer cell growth.

Furthermore, the phytochemicals suppressed the genes associated with cancer cell survival and proliferation and protein involved the generation of new blood vessels for the tumor.

Furthermore, the tested bioactive compound also activated the protein associated with the pro-apoptosis against the gene involved anti-apoptosis of the cancer cells.

Additionally,  I3C and its dimeric product, 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) also overexpressed the gene involved cell cycle arrest against the progression of cancer.

Dr.Noroozi MK and colleagues wrote at the end of the experiment, "I3C and its dimeric product, 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been widely investigated for their importance against a number of human cancers both in vitro and in vivo".

In the microRNA-21 analysis, researchers found that DIM inhibits the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression against colon cancer (CAC) pathogenesis.

Where MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs of ∼22nt in length involved in the regulation of gene expression including inflammation and angiogenesis.

In mesothelioma, injection of DIM exerted anti mesothelioma potentials, through lowering the expression microRNA regulatory activities by suppressing macrophage infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

In other words, DIM modulated the immune response against the onset and progression of mesothelioma in stimulating the production of oxidative stress due to the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the initiation of the disease.

Taken altogether, DIM may be considered a supplement for the prevention and combined with primary medicine for the treatment of cancer, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Molecular targets, anti-cancer properties and potency of synthetic indole-3-carbinol derivatives by Noroozi MK1, Mahmoodi M1, Jafarzadeh A1, Darekordi A2, Hajizadeh MR1, Hassanshahi G. (PubMed)
(2) Enhancing miR-132 expression by aryl hydrocarbon receptor attenuates tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis by Alzahrani AM1, Hanieh H2, Ibrahim HM2, Mohafez O3, Shehata T4, Bani Ismail M2, Alfwuaires M. (PubMed)
(3) The Biology of Aging and Cancer: A Brief Overview of Shared and Divergent Molecular Hallmarks by Jan R. Aunan,1,2,* William C Cho,3 and Kjetil Søreide. (PubMed)

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