Wednesday, 17 April 2019

Phytochemical 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, the Natural Treatment for Breast cancer in Vivo and Human Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disorderly and uncontrollably in our body.

Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a medical condition characterized by irregular cells growth in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. 

There are also rare cases that breast cancer started in other areas of the breast. 

In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in women in the US and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during the lifetime of a woman is 1/8.

Breast cancer is first noticed as a painless lump in the breast or armpit and most often discovered by the women themselves.

In some cases, breast cancer can also be noticed by the woman partner or during the doctor a routine physical exam.

In the early stage of breast cancer, patients may experience symptoms of the lump (mass) in the breast. and in the armpit (lymph nodes), nipple discharge, inverted or retracted nipple, scaly or pitted skin on nipple,  persistent tenderness of the breast and unusual breast pain or discomfort.

If you experience some of the aforementioned symptoms, please check with your doctor right the way to rule out the possibility. Breast cancer diagnosed in the early stage have a 5-year survival rate of 100%. 

However, at the advanced stage, due to the oversize of the tumor, patients may experience symptoms of bone pain (secondary tumors in bone), shortness of breath (secondary tumors in lung) and Headaches, neurological pain or weakness (secondary tumors in the nervous system) accompanied by the general symptoms shared with other types of cancer.

Out of many risk factor associated with the onset of breast cancer, genetic preposition may be one of the major prediction of the disease.

Dr. Amir Mehrgou, the lead scientist said, "Early detection of mutation carriers in these genes, in turn, can play an important role in its prevention. Because this disease has a high prevalence in half of the global population, female screening of reported mutations in predisposing genes, which have been seen in breast cancer patients, seems necessary. In this review, a number of mutations in two predisposing genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) that occurred in patients with a family history,..".

In fact, women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a 68% of lifetime risk to develop breast cancer.

In seeking a potential compound for the treatment of breast cancer, researchers examined the promising 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) anticancer effects of breast cancer patients with high HER-2/neu levels.

DIM combined with Herceptin enhances the effectiveness of Herceptin by significantly reducing cancer cell viability, and increasing apoptosis-induction and inhibition of colony formation, compared to the use of the chemo drug alone.

The combination also induced cancer cell death by inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines, cancer cell division and proliferation and migration.

Furthermore, the combination also significantly exhibited the expression of miR-200, which plays an essential in blocking tumor cell invasion and metastasis and reduction of FoxM1 expression in the promotion of cancer cell proliferation.

Dr. Ahmad A, the lead scientist said, "DIM-plus Herceptin therapy could be translated to the clinic as a therapeutic modality to improve treatment outcome of patients with breast cancer, particularly for the patients whose tumors express high levels of HER-2/neu".

Moreover, in order to know more information about DIM anti-breast cancer activity, researchers investigated the bioactive compound against the transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) associated with aggressive human carcinomas, including breast cancer.

3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a nontoxic dietary chemopreventive agent showed to inhibit the FoxM1 in various breast cancer cell lines, according to the observation of gene transfection, real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and Western blotting.

Similar to the aforementioned results, DIM combined with Taxotere enhanced Taxotere-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and decreased the invasive capacity of breast cancer cells compared to treatment alone.

Most importantly, the combination treatment also significantly inhibited tumor growth in severe immunodeficiency (SCID) mice,

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane enhances the effectiveness of herceptin against HER-2/neu-expressing breast cancer cells by Ahmad A1, Ali S, Ahmed A, Ali AS, Raz A, Sakr WA, Rahman KM. (PubMed)
(2) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane enhances taxotere-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells through downregulation of FoxM1 by Ahmad A1, Ali S, Wang Z, Ali AS, Sethi S, Sakr WA, Raz A, Rahman KM. (PubMed)
(3) The importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations in breast cancer development by Amir Mehrgou 1 and Mansoureh Akouchekian. (PMC)

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