Sunday, 28 April 2019

Bromelain, the Natural Promotion of Intestinal Health

By Kyle J. Norton

Intestinal health is a subject that covers multiple positive aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the effective digestion and absorption of food, promoting the balance of intestinal microbiota.

According to general knowledge, people who eat a diet with fruits and vegetables that are high in fiber have been found to process a healthy microbiota including beans and legumes and berries.

Believe it or not, the human gut microbiota contains trillions of cells, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The gut microbiota is important to improve the digestive function in the absorption of nutrition, before passing them to the cells and tissue in the body.

In the immunity perspective, the gut microbiota and immune system interact to protect each other to ensure the optimal function of both the digestive and immune system.

In other words, imbalanced gut microbiota not only causes the dysfunction of the digestive system but also reduces the functional immune system in the protection of the body against infection.

Furthermore, in the neuro-perspective, balanced gut microbiota also exerted a strong interaction between the microbiota and the enteric nervous system (ENS), leading to improvement of both systems against the risk of potential diseases that link the microbial dysbiosis to gastrointestinal disorders.

Dr. Sai Manasa Jandhyala, the lead scientist in the summary of the benefits of normal gut microbiota wrote, " The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. 

And, Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in a reservoir of organisms with a multidrug-resistant gene pool.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and for the treatment of pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient for the improvement of intestinal health researchers examined the effect of bromelain found in the pineapple on leukocyte migration, activation, and production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in vitro.

According to the enzyme immunoassays, injection of bromelain induced immune response, However, in the digestive process, bromelain sensitive molecules formulated in antacid from both leukocytes and colon epithelial cells were removed, leading to retaining substantial proteolytic activity.

Where proteolysis is the process of breaking down of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids which play an integral role in removing toxins from the body, supports metabolism, encourage healthy digestion.

 Dr. Hale LP, the lead scientist said, "Although anti-bromelain IgG was detected in both serum and stool after long-term oral therapy, these antibodies did not prevent bromelain proteolytic activity within the gastrointestinal tract".

Based on the findings, researchers suggested bromelain enzymes that remain intact after oral administration proteolytically protect the murine gastrointestinal tract by modifying the colonic inflammation.

In order to reveal more information about bromelain used in some developed countries for the protection of colonic inflammation, researchers examined the bromelain, a crude extract from the pineapple stem on digestive health.

In an animal model, oral administration of bromelain improves the decrease in defecation in abdominal postoperative rats.

Furthermore, injection of bromelain inhibited overexpressed the mRNA protein associated with the initiation of inflammation and restored the protein mRNA involved the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of the postoperative rats.

Dr. Wen S, the lead scientist said, "(The result strongly suggested that) bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats, at least in part, by inhibiting colonic iNOS overexpression via the NF-kappaB pathway".

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the promotion of intestinal health, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice by Hale LP. (PubMed)
(2) Bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats: modulation of colonic gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Wen S1, Huang TH, Li GQ, Yamahara J, Roufogalis BD, Li Y. (PubMed)
(3) Role of the normal gut microbiota by Sai Manasa Jandhyala, Rupjyoti Talukdar, Chivkula Subramanyam, Harish Vuyyuru, Mitnala Sasikala, and D Nageshwar Reddy. (PMC)

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