Thursday, 18 April 2019

Bromelain Inhibited Metabolic Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases Developing

By Kyle J. Norton

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a group of medical conditions associated with blood vessels and the heart.

Depending on the location of blood flow is blocked, cardiovascular diseases can be classified into
Heart disease, including
* Heart disease affects heart chambers
Heart failure caused by the heart not pumping as much blood as it should.

* Heart disease affects heart muscles
The heart muscles thickens and becomes stiff, increasing the amount of pressure required to expand for blood flows into the heart or the narrowing of the passage as a result of obstructing blood flow out of the heart.

* Heart disease affects heart valves
These type heart diseases occur when the mitral valve in the heart is narrowing causing the heart to work harder to pump blood from the left atrium into the ventricle.

* Heart disease affecting coronary arteries and coronary veins
The malfunctioning of the heart may be due to heart muscle damage caused by narrowed or blocked arteries.

5. Heart disease affects heart lining
Rheumatic heart disease results from inflammation of the heart lining when too much fluid builds up in the lungs leading to pulmonary congestion. 

6. Heart disease affects the electrical system
The electrical system within the heart is responsible for ensuring the heart beats correctly. Any malfunction of the electrical system in the heart causes a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.

and stroke, including
* Ischemic stroke caused by a clot or other blockage within an artery leading to the brain.

* Hemorrhagic stroke caused by the vessel in the brain rupturing that leads to blood leaking into the brain.
According to statistics provided by the CDC, approximately, 600,000 people die of heart disease in the US every year, according to 1 in every 4 deaths. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women.

On the other hand, more than 795,000 people in the United States have a stroke every year, including 610,000 with a first or new stroke. 87% of all strokes are ischemic strokes.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

In seeking a potential compound for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, researchers investigated whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease's (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes.

The 12 weeks randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China including 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, the mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor.

Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule(1,050 mg, taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted of inert ingredient with no treatment effect.

According to the tested assays, bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L of fibrinogen level, compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L in the placebo group.

Although there is no difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein, and anthropometric measures, however, according to the additional examination, researchers found statistical differences in fibrinogen may have influenced the results of bromelain effects on CVD.

In order to reveal more information about bromelain anti CVD activity, researchers launched a study by reviewing the correlated study on online medical literature.

According to the results of 6 papers met the inclusion criteria out of 223 papers retrieved, bromelain showed a significant effect on acute thrombophlebitis, by decreasing aggregation of blood platelets.

Futhermore, injection of bromelain also exhibited a cardioprotective effect, by ameliorating rejection-induced arterial wall remodeling, preventing thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation and reducing thrombus formation.

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Bromelain and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes: An exploratory randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial by Ley CM1, Ni Q2, Liao X3, Gao HL4, Robinson N. (PubMed)
(2) A review of the use of bromelain in cardiovascular diseases by Ley CM1, Tsiami A, Ni Q, Robinson N. (PubMed)

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