Monday, 22 April 2019

Phytochemical Alliin Suppresses the Onset of Hypercholesterolemia

By Kyle J. Norton

Hypercholesterolemia is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high blood cholesterol in the blood

In other words, hypercholesterolemia is a result of overexpression of low-density lipoprotein compared low levels of high-density lipoprotein.

Low-density cholesterol also is known as bad cholesterol produced by the liver or dietary saturated and trans fat in moderate amount plays  a critical role in building a strong cell wall, production of steroid hormones and vitamin D and aiding the gastrointestinal tract in the absorption of nutrients.

However, high levels of bad cholesterol have been found to induce hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of heart disease and stroke.

High-density lipoprotein or good cholesterol, on the other hand, returns the amount of excess cholesterol back to the liver for future use.

High-density lipoprotein is also produced by the liver and dietary sources found mostly in nut and fish.
The healthy ratio of LDL/HDL is any numbers less than 4.

Although there are many risk factors that cause the onset of hypercholesterolemia, some researchers suggested the introduction of a high-fat diet in North American over the past few decades may accelerate the rise of the condition.

Dr. Cole TG, the lead scientist, in a randomized controlled parallel-designed intervention study to evaluate the effects of a diet with less than 20 g carbohydrates per day (LCHF) on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in young and healthy adults wrote, "There was a significant increase in apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acids, uric acid and urea in the LCHF group versus controls".

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

On finding a natural compound for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, researchers investigated
the effect of Lichtwer garlic powder (containing 1.3% alliin equivalent to 0.6% allicin) on the serum cholesterol, triglyceride in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet.

Rats selected to the study were randomly dived into experimental rats fed with a 2% high cholesterol diet with and without garlic powder for 6 weeks and control rats fed with normal diet daily.

High cholesterol-fed animals had a significant increase in serum cholesterol compared to the control group of rats fed on a normal diet.

However, in the rat group fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with garlic powder, researchers found that there was a significant reduction in their serum cholesterol levels compared to other groups.

Lichtwer garlic powder (containing 1.3% alliin equivalent to 0.6% allicin) also lowered the serum triglyceride levels compared to control and high cholesterol diet group rats without affecting the serum glucose and protein.

The finding clearly suggested that Lichtwer garlic powder (containing 1.3% alliin equivalent to 0.6% allicin) is beneficial in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.

In order to reveal more information about alliin anti-high blood cholesterol activity, researchers evaluated the capacity of Allium ursinum (wild garlic) leaf lyophilisate (WGLL; alliin content: 0.261%) to mitigate cardiovascular damage in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

The selected New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: (i) cholesterol-free rabbit chow (control); (ii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol (hypercholesterolemic, HC); (iii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol + 2% WGLL (hypercholesterolemic treated, HCT); for eight weeks.

During the study, WGLLtreated group showed a decrease in aortic atherosclerotic plaque coverage, plasma ApoB, a protein in atherogenic lipoprotein particles associated heart disease associated with reduced blood cholesterol.

Furthermore, the activity of LDH and CK (creatine kinase) in plasma is also found to lower compared to other treatment groups.

The plasma LDL was also significantly reduced in WGLL-treated group.

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Allium ursinum Liophylisate: Impact on Lipoprotein Homeostasis and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits by Bombicz M1,2, Priksz D3,4, Varga B5,6, Gesztelyi R7, Kertesz A8, Lengyel P9, Balogh P10, Csupor D11, Hohmann J12, Bhattoa HP13, Haines DD14, Juhasz B. (PubMed)
(2) Effect of garlic on lipid profile and psychopathologic parameters in people with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia by Peleg A1, Hershcovici T, Lipa R, Anbar R, Redler M, Beigel Y. (PubMed)
(3) Effect of low carbohydrate high fat diet on LDL cholesterol and gene expression in normal-weight, young adults: A randomized controlled study by Retterstøl K1, Svendsen M2, Narverud I3, Holven KB. (PubMed)

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