Wednesday, 24 April 2019

Whole Food Honey, the Natural Free Radicals Scavenger

By Kyle J. Norton


Free radicals are highly reactive molecules. Internally, they are produced by our body cell metabolism. Externally, free radical can enter our body from the environment sources, such as the air we breathe, the food we eat and the water we drink.

In other words, free radicals are everywhere. Any chemicals compounds or molecules which process oxygen atom can be free radicals after chemical interaction.

Free radicals have been found epidemiologically to damage the lipid, and protein and induce the alternation of healthy cell DNA.

Out of all damages caused by overexpression of free radicals, some researchers suggested that lipid peroxidation induced by free radical has a strong implication in the pathogenesis of various disorders and diseases.

Free radicals cause lipid peroxidation by oxidizing the free and ester forms of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol through three distinct mechanisms, including free radical-mediated chain reaction, enzyme-mediated oxidation, and nonradical, nonenzymatic oxidation. All of these chemical reactions cannot be stopped until the electrons on the outermost ring of free radical are paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Free radical scavengers are atoms that process the function to prevent the free radicals from being formed or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell. 

Dr. Slemmer JE, the lead scientist in the examination of free radical scavengers for the treatment of stroke wrote, "The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a common underlying mechanism of many neuropathologies, as they have been shown to damage various cellular components, including proteins, lipids, and DNA".

And "several acute and chronic pharmacological therapies that have been extensively studied in order to reduce ROS/RNS loads in cells and the subsequent oxidative stress, so-called "free-radical scavengers".

In other words, an antioxidant with free radical scavenging activity may protect the body against the damage of various cellular components, including proteins, lipids, and DNA in the initiation of diseases.

Honey, the rich golden liquid is the miraculous product made by bees using nectar from flowers.

The liquid is considered one of the healthy food for replacing the use of white sugar and artificial sweetener by many people.

In the urgency to find a natural compound or therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic free radical-mediated diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer, researchers examined the honey of multi-floral origin, standardized for total antioxidant power and analytically profiled (HPLC-MS) in antioxidants, in a cultured endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) subjected to oxidative stress.

Native honey (1% w/v pH 7.4, 10(6) cells) showed strong activity against lipophilic cumoxyl and cumoperoxyl radicals through several mechanisms, including suppression/prevention of cell damage, complete inhibition of cell membrane oxidation, of intracellular ROS production and recovery of intracellular GSH.

According to the observation of the results from the experiments with the endothelial cell, native honey showed strongest antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (AAPH, 10 mM) and to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 50-100 microM) through its phenolic acids and flavonoids.

Dr. Beretta G, the lead scientist said, "These results provide unequivocal evidence that, through the synergistic action of its antioxidants, honey by reducing and removing ROS, may lower the risks and effects of acute and chronic free radical-induced pathologies in vivo."

In order to reveal more information of honey free radical scavenging activity, researchers evaluated the protective effect of several monofloral Cuban honey against lipid peroxidation in an in vitro model of rat liver.

All tested honey showed potent antioxidant activity with Linen vine displaying the highest scavenging capacity towards the DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals, while the least efficient was Christmas vine honey.

Linen vine is the best in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates in a concentration-dependent mode, compared to others.

Based on the findings, researchers suggested, "The ability to scavenge free radicals and protect against lipid peroxidation may contribute to the ability of certain Cuban honey to help in preventing/reducing some inflammatory diseases in which oxidative stress is involved".

Taken altogether, honey, particular native and Cuban honey may be considered functional remedies for the treatment of acute and chronic free radical-mediated diseases with no side effects, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

References
(1) Radical-scavenging activity, protective effect against lipid peroxidation and mineral contents of monofloral Cuban honeys by Alvarez-Suarez JM1, Giampieri F, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Fattorini D, Regoli F, Quiles JL, Battino M. (PubMed)
(2) Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of honey in endothelial cell cultures (EA.hy926) by Beretta G1, Orioli M, Facino RM. (PubMed)
(3) Antioxidants and free radical scavengers for the treatment of stroke, traumatic brain injury and aging by Slemmer JE1, Shacka JJ, Sweeney MI, Weber JT. (PubMed)

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