Colitis is a general term associated with the inflammation of the inner lining of the colon.
Additionally, intestinal mucosal barrier also processes various immunological mediators, including cytokines and chemokines stimulated by gut microbiota and host immune responses, thus maintaining a well-balanced relationship between gut microbes and the host immune system.
The anti-inflammatory activity of trehalose, rapamycin or betanin was also observed by a decrease of M1 macrophage markers.
The results suggested that betanin processes pharmacological stimulation of mucosal autophagy in reduced intestinal inflammation and improved murine colitis.
Furthermore, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). betanin also protected the colitic cells against oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood, through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Stimulation of autophagy prevents intestinal mucosal inflammation and ameliorates murine colitis by Macias-Ceja DC1, Cosín-Roger J2, Ortiz-Masiá D2,3, Salvador P2, Hernández C1,2, Esplugues JV1,2, Calatayud S2, Barrachina MD. (PubMed)
(2) DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin by Zielińska-Przyjemska M1, Olejnik A2, Dobrowolska-Zachwieja A3, Łuczak M4, Baer-Dubowska W. (PubMed)
(3) Colitis and colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction by K R Gardiner, N H Anderson, B J Rowlands, and A Barbul. (PMC)