Monday, 15 April 2019

Bioactive Compound Sinigrin, the Dietary Source of Antioxidants

By Kyle J. Norton

Antioxidants are stable molecules which inhibit oxidation. Antioxidants are either produced by the host or from the dietary sources.

Under normal condition, antioxidants produced by the body are good enough to counter the presence of free radicals in the body of a healthy individual.

However, in people with the weakened immune system or medical condition, intake of dietary antioxidants may be necessary due to depletion of the antioxidant enzymes.

Free radicals are unstable molecules with a single electron in the outer ring. Therefore, in order for them to maintain stable, they must either donate or intercept an electron from other molecules, leading a chain reaction that can not be stopped until they are either inhibited by antioxidant or electrons are paired.

Oxidative stress is an imbalance of the ratio of free radicals and antioxidant in the body caused by either overexpression of free radicals or depletion of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host.

Epidemiological studies suggested that oxidative stress has been found to cause lipid and protein and cellular damage, leading to the onset of chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation, and stroke.

Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of oxidative stress, widespread obesity may be one of the major factors that contribute to the severity of the disease due to oxidative stress.

Dr. Keaney JF Jr said, "Smoking, diabetes, and body mass index were highly associated with systemic oxidative stress as determined by creatinine-indexed urinary 8-epi-PGF2alpha levels. The effect of body mass index was minimally affected by blood glucose, and diabetes and may suggest an important role of oxidative stress in the deleterious impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease".

Researchers on finding a natural ingredient which processes a strong antioxidant activity for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress investigated the antioxidant property of sinigrin.

Injection of sinigrin suppressed the nitric oxide (NO) production, a free radical although is found to process many health benefits such as increased blood flow and blood vessel relaxation, reduced risk of CVD, and side effects such as induced oxidative stress causing neuro, kidney and liver toxicity by reducing the levels of nitric oxide synthase.

In rat study. oral administration of the compound also showed reduced the levels of urinary nitrate + nitrite and allyl isothiocyanate. In other words, sinigrin inhibited the production of free radicals expression through its antioxidant activity.

In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), sinigrin exerted antioxidative stress potency by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative balance impairment (oxidative stress) in facilitating the progression of hepatic steatosis.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is found to interfere with the function of cells in the production of energy for cell or organ needs.

Oxidative balance impairment is another term of oxidative stress. 

More precisely, it is caused by either overexpression of reactive oxygen species and/or depletion of antioxidant enzymes produced the host.

Taken altogether, sinigrin a bioactive ingredient in cruciferous vegetables may be considered a functional supplement for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

However, intake of bioactive in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care, as liver toxicity may be induced if overdosed.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Antioxidant dietary approach in treatment of fatty liver: New insights and updates by Alessandra Ferramosca, Mariangela Di Giacomo, and Vincenzo Zara. (PMC)
(2) (1) Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits by Anisha Mazumder, Anupma Dwivedi and Jeanetta du Plessis. (PubMed)
(3) Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study by Keaney JF Jr1, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, Lipinska I, Corey D, Massaro JM, Sutherland P, Vita JA, Benjamin EJ; Framingham Study. (PubMed)

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