Monday, 15 April 2019

3,3'-Diindolylmethane, the Best Anti-inflammatory Bioactive Compound

By Kyle J. Norton

Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system which tries to protect our body by destroying the harmful pathogens before they cause damage.

In the acute phase of infection, the immune system white blood cells in the first line defense stimulate the production of blood palette to cover the wound and the production of inflammatory cytokines to kill off micro-organisms, leading to symptoms of fever, redness, and swelling.

Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in some cases have been found to damage nearby healthy cells and tissues, causing the formation of scars.

In severe cases, a protein with duo functions in the production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines which produce anti-inflammatory cytokines under normal condition also switch to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Most harmful pathogens are stopped at the acute phase of infection. However, if the immune first line of defense can not completely destroy the invaders within a period of 3 to 8 weeks, it will compromise, leading to low-grade chronic inflammation.

Diseases associated with low-grade chronic inflammation include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Conventional treatment of acute phase inflammation is to manage inflammation and prevent the risk of long-term damage, including anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which can be bought without a prescription.

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

In the urgency of finding a potential compound which processes a strong anti-inflammatory activity, researchers examined the effects of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, and a glucosinolate naturally occurring in Brassica genus vegetables.

The study carried out by differentiated the 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the co-cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophages and exposed to 20 µM, 40 µM and 60 µM DIM for 24 h followed by 100 nM insulin for 20 min.

According to the tested assays, DIM significantly (p<0.05) reduced the production and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, and TNFα) in a concentration-dependent manner.

Injection of DIM was found to increase the expression of proteins involved in the positive regulation of metabolism and proliferation (IRS-1 pY612 and Akt-1/PKB pT308) through its anti-inflammatory properties.

In other words, DIM influences the glucose metabolic pathway by exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. 

Dr.Lopez-Vazquez A, the lead scientist said, "The potential therapeutic benefits of DIM in the treatment of glucose metabolic disorders deserve further studies".

In order to reveal more information about DIM anti-inflammatory effects, researchers examined the dietary components found in cruciferous vegetables, on brain inflammation.

Administration of DIM suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of reactive oxygen species and promoted the production of antioxidant enzymes in the host through inhibiting the microglial hyperactivation by attenuating inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB.

Furthermore, DIM protected primary cortical neurons from inflammatory toxicity induced by  LPS.

In vivo model of neuroinflammation, DIM also suppressed LPS-induced brain inflammation in mouse hippocampus.

Based on the findings, Dr. Kim HW, the lead researchers said, "DIM may have beneficial potential against brain inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases through the negative regulation of the NF-κB signal pathway in microglia".

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) IRS-1 pY612 and Akt-1/PKB pT308 Phosphorylation and Antiinflammatory Effect of Diindolylmethane in Adipocytes Cocultured with Macrophages by Lopez-Vazquez A1, Garcia-Banuelos JJ2, Gonzalez-Garibay AS1, Urzua-Lozano PE1, Del Toro-Arreola S1, Bueno-Topete MR1, Sanchez-Enriquez S3, Munoz-Valle JF4, Jave-Suarez LF5, Armendariz-Borunda J6, Bastidas-Ramirez BE. (PubMed)
(2) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial hyperactivation and attenuates brain inflammation by Kim HW1, Kim J, Kim J, Lee S, Choi BR, Han JS, Lee KW, Lee HJ. (PubMed)

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