Tuesday, 30 April 2019

Plant-Based Alliin, the Potential Anti Ovarian Cancer Phytochemical

By Kyle J. Norton

Ovarian cancer is a chronic and medical condition caused by cell growth irregularly in the tissue of the ovary.

Most cases of ovarian cancer begin in the cells on the surface of the inner lining tissue of the ovary before spreading to the deeper layers to form a tumor.

In the very early stage, due to the very small size of the tumor, most patients are asymptomatic. However, as the disease progression, patients may experience symptoms shared commonly with other types of cancer accompanied by specific symptoms of abdominal bloating or swelling, discomfort in the pelvis area, changes in bowel habits, such as constipation.

According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system.

A woman risk of ovarian cancer is 1 in 78. and the risk of the lifetime chance of dying from ovarian cancer is about 1 in 108.

The five-year relative survival rate for all types and stages of ovarian cancer is 47 percent, Cancer diagnosed at the early stage have a 5-year survival rate of over 72%.

The exact causes of ovarian cancer are not known. However, according to the epidemiological studies genetics preposition such as  BRCA1 and BRCA2, family and history of cancer or endometriosis, aging, reproductive history, and infertility and obesity are some of the prevalent factors involved in the onset of ovarian cancer.

The Canadian Cancer Society in the evaluation of the risk of ovarian cancer in women who are never being pregnant or giving birth wrote, "Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer than women who have been pregnant".

And, "Researchers think that the lower risk may be because the hormones that are present during pregnancy have a protective effect. It is possible that the higher risk in women who have never been pregnant is linked to the factors that may make it difficult for her to become pregnant".

In other words, women who have at least one pregnancy are at a lower risk of ovarian cancer compared to women who do not.

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide, a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

With an aim to find a natural and potential compound for the treatment of ovarian cancer without inducing adverse effects, researchers examined the efficacy of preparation including chemical conjugate between daidzein and the garlic enzyme alliinase.

According to the tested assays, the conjugate specifically bound to ovarian cancer cells and upon addition of the prodrug alliin by inducing the cytotoxic allicin molecules in killing the cancer cells.

In vivo, the preparation showed a targeting and antitumor effect confirmed by NIR and bioluminescence imagine in the luciferase-expression of ovarian cancer cells. 

Treatment of ovarian tumor-bearing mice with daidzein-alliinase and alliin effectively attenuated tumor progression during the first 12 days.

Compared to placebo, only small individual foci of luminescence at the site of tumor cells inoculation was found in the treatment group, according to autopsy.

Interestingly, the preparation did not reveal any additional foci of carcinoma or signs of toxicity, according to the histological examination of organs and tissues.

In other words, the chemical conjugate between daidzein and the garlic enzyme alliinase induced ovarian cancer cells apoptosis through its cytotoxic effects without causing harm to the nearby healthy cells.

Based on the findings researchers wrote in the final report, "the targeted alliinase conjugates in the presence of alliin, generated therapeutically effective levels of allicin which were capable of suppressing tumor progression of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer in an animal model".

Taken altogether, alliin used alone or combined with other herbal medicines may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Conjugates of daidzein-alliinase as a targeted pro-drug enzyme system against ovarian carcinoma by Appel E1, Rabinkov A, Neeman M, Kohen F, Mirelman D. (PubMed)
(2) Risk factors for ovarian cancer by the Canadian Cancer Society

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