Thursday, 25 April 2019

Herbal Turmeric, the Potential and Natural Neuroprotective Remedy

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a herbal spice which processed bioactive ingredients for the treatment of neuro-disorder with no side effects, according to studies.

Neuroprotection an action involved the use of a natural substance to protect the integrity and viability of neurons against damage or death.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a class of conditions associated with the progressive loss of neuron in the brain caused by several mechanisms, including toxicity and oxygen deficiency.

Most common disease associated with neuro-degenerative diseases is dementia, a cluster of conditions included Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease.

The disease has been found to negatively influence the body's functioning, including balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. 

There are many risk factors that cause the onset of the progressive death of brain neurons. Genetic preposition, medical condition, such as alcoholism, brain cancer or a stroke in the brain.

A prolonged period of toxins, toxic chemicals accumulated that affects the brain function also have a strong impact to induce the onset of the disease.

Out of many factors, some researchers suggested that the prevalence of obesity may process some negative implication in stimulating the rise of neurodegenerative disease in older adults in the Western world.

Dr. Daniel Shalev, the lead scientist wrote, "So how does obesity or diabetes contribute to a 50% increase in the risk of dementia?".

And, "Many of the same processes that affect coronary arteries and visceral organs also impact the brain. Inflammation leads to the activation of microglia and astrocytes. This causes the release of cytokines and reactive oxidants, ultimately leading to neuronal dysfunction or death. Critically, this process can unleash a vicious cycle: dying neurons can cause more inflammation, thereby creating a cascade of neurodegeneration".

The findings strongly suggested if you are obese, your risk of dementia is substantially higher compared to non-obese individuals.

Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia.

The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and for the treatment of flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.

With an aim to find a natural compound which processes neuroprotective activity, researchers evaluated the neuroprotective effects of extracts from the radix of C. aromatica (ECAs, Turmeric) on free radical damage cells.

The study included the model of oxidative stress damage (H2O2-damaged PC12 cells) induced by injection of 400 ┬ÁM H2O2.

Compared to ECAs as the same doses, 95% EtOH extract (HCECA) and 75% EtOH extract (MCECA) from turmeric showed markedly the increase of the rate of neuron survival and enhancement of the antioxidant enzyme activities via the inhibition of the level of ROS.

In other words, 95% EtOH extract (HCECA) and 75% EtOH extract (MCECA) from turmeric exerted a better neuron-protective and antioxidant activity than of ECAs.

Furthermore, the 95% EtOH extract (HCECA) and 75% EtOH extract (MCECA) also attenuated the intracellular Ca2+ overloading in the induction of psychiatric overtones, such as depression, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction and decreased the activation of proteins and matrixes involved cell apoptosis, similar to those of ECAs.

The efficacy of the 95% EtOH extract (HCECA) and 75% EtOH extract (MCECA) against the degeneration of neurons was attributed to the presence of the active compound diarylheptanoids.

Based on the finding, researchers wrote, "These findings indicated that the effects of HCECA and MCECA on inhibiting the cells damage induced by H2O2 in PC12 are better than other extracts from the radix of C. aromatica".

In order to reveal more information about turmeric neuroprotective effects, researchers evaluated the effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in an animal model.

This study included 60 adult male rats divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated concurrently with nicotine (6 mg/kg) and curcumin (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg i.p. respectively) for 21 days.

According to the Open Field Test (OFT), curcumin-treated groups (40 and 60 mg/kg) reduced the nicotine-induced motor activity disturbances.

Before injection of curcumin nicotine treatment showed the increase of lipid peroxidation observed by the overexpression of ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and protein associated with neuron-apoptosis in the hippocampus.

Furthermore, nicotine also reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the tested rats in the hippocampus.

Injection of curcumin reversed all alternation by attenuating nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation; and elevating the levels P-CREB and BDNF associated with the improvement of cognitive function,

Taken altogether, turmeric and its bioactive compounds, particularly curcumin may be considered a supplement for the protection of neurons integrity, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of turmeric in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Neuroprotective Effects of Extracts from the Radix Curcuma aromatica on H2O2-induced Damage in PC12 Cells by Liu J1, Zhang L1, Liu D1, Li B1, Zhang M. (PubMed)
(2) The Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Nicotine-Induced Neurotoxicity is Mediated by CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway by Motaghinejad M1, Motevalian M2, Fatima S2, Faraji F2, Mozaffari S. (PubMed)
(3) Metabolism and Memory: Obesity, Diabetes, and Dementia by Daniel Shalev and Melissa R. Arbuckle. (PMC)

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