Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Turmeric/ Curcumin, the Bioactive Compound from Turmeric Suppress the Onset of Arthritis

By Kyle J. Norton

Arthritis is a general form of inflammatory diseases associated with the inflammation of one or more of joints.

Most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness found mostly in the aging population.

Most common types of arthritis that affect people in the US are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Most common caused of arthritis is a joint injury that did not heal properly, metabolic abnormalities caused by overexpression of uric acid and infection-induced bacteria or virus.

However, there are some cases of arthritis caused by autoimmunity, a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the joint tissues, such as in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

According to the information provided by the Arthritis Foundation, in the US, approximately 54 million adults are living with the condition.

Believe it or not, Almost 300,000 babies and children have arthritis or a rheumatic condition.

Most common symptoms associated with the disease are all involved in the joints, including fatigue. joint pain, tenderness, swelling, redness, stiffness, particularly, the loss of joint range of motion.

Some researchers in the comparison of the history of arthritis development suggested that the severity of the condition probably is a result of the promotion of Western diet over the past few decades.

Miss. Sadhana Bharanidharan in the article "Western Diet, With Its High-Fat Content, Linked To Arthritis" wrote, "A team of researchers, from the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, fed mice a high-fat diet similar to that of a western “cheeseburger and milkshake” regimen. After three months, the mice became obese and diabetic. Their fat percentage was double as much as those rodents who were fed a healthy, low-fat diet".

And, "High levels of pro-inflammatory bacteria were observed in the colons of the obese mice, while beneficial, probiotic bacteria was almost not present at all. This coincided with signs of inflammation across the body. The researchers induced a tear in a certain tissue of the knee to induce osteoarthritis. Compared to the healthy mice, the condition progressed much faster in the obese rodents, and within three months after the tear, all their cartilage disappeared".

Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia.

The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of arthritis researchers examined the effects of turmeric and its curcumin-enriched extracts by reviewing the database of online medical literature. 

According to 8 studies met specific selection criteria out of 29 selected,
* Turmeric/curcumin treatment showed a reduction of A pain visual analog score (PVAS) compared to placebo in RCTs.

* Turmeric/curcumin treatment showed a decrease of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in a meta-analysis of four studies.

Further differentiation of the conclusion of the viewing studies, the researchers suggested that there is no publication bias in the meta-analysis and concluded that these RCTs provide scientific evidence to support the efficacy of turmeric extract (about 1000 mg/day of curcumin) in the treatment of arthritis.

In rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), researchers investigated the efficacy of turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes.

Turmeric and ginger used alone at dose 200 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively.

Turmeric and ginger used alone also suppressed the overexpression of oxidative stress in the affected area by stimulating production antioxidant enzymes.

Compared to ginger, the anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded the effects of that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction.

More importantly,  turmeric exerted additional arthritis recovery of a percentage of 4.6-8.3% and 10.2%, compared to ginger and indomethacin, respectively. 

Based on the findings, researchers wrote in the final report, "(The result) proves the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of turmeric over ginger and indomethacin".

Taken altogether, turmeric may be considered supplements for the and treatment of arthritis, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of turmeric in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials by Daily JW1, Yang M2, Park S. (PubMed)
(2) Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by Ramadan G1, Al-Kahtani MA, El-Sayed WM. (PubMed)
(3) "Western Diet, With Its High-Fat Content, Linked To Arthritis" by Sadhana Bharanidharan. (Medical Daily)

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