Friday, 5 April 2019

Phytochemical 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Protects the Heart Muscle Against the Onset of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

By Kyle J. Norton

Heart muscle or myocardium is one of three types of muscles in human, that build the walls of the heart.

Most common diseases of heart muscle include angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease caused by restricting blood supply to the muscle.

Most common symptoms of heart muscle diseases include tightness, pain, or swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet

Some patients may also experience symptoms of gastrointestinal discomforts include bloating,   abdominal pain and shortness of breath caused by the reduced blood supply.

Most common risk factors associated with heart muscle disease including high blood pressure,  heart tissue damage, heart problems, metabolic syndrome, nutritional deficiencies, excessive alcohol drinking.

Some researchers suggested that genetic preposition may have a strong effect in the induction of heart muscle disease.

The Genetics Home Reference wrote, " mutations in more than 30 genes have been found to cause familial dilated cardiomyopathy. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are found in cardiac muscle cells called cardiomyocytes.

And, "Mutations in one gene, TTN, account for approximately 20 percent of cases of familial dilated cardiomyopathy".

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

On finding a natural ingredient which protects the heart muscle against the onset of cardiovascular disease researchers examined the 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) effects on cardiomyocytes.

Tested cell lines H9C2 used in the study was evaluated by DIM's influence on inflammation and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by LPS. H9C2 cells incubated with DIM (10, 20 and 30 μM) with or without LPS for 24 h.

Treatment with various concentrations of DIM (10, 20 and 30 μM) inhibited the overabundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression) induced by LPS.

In other words, DIM normalized the levels of impaired TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, in the LPS + DIM30(μM) group.

According to the tested assays, DIM treatment significantly blocked LPS-induced oxidative stress and inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

Furthermore, DIM significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of a protein associated with proapoptosis and enhanced the expression of a protein involved anti-apoptosis.

Dr. Luo Q, the lead scientist, wrote on the final report, "DIM may have a protective effect for H9C2 cardiomyocytes against LPS-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis. DIM may be a new insight into the treatment of septic cardiomyopathy".

In order to find out more information about DIM anti-cardiovascular disease activity, researchers evaluated the function of DIM on the hypoxia‑induced cardiac injury.

The study included H9c2 cells pretreated with DIM (1, 5 and 10 µM) for 12 h and exposed to hypoxia for 12 h.

DIM with different doses extended markedly attenuated the increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α) induced by hypoxia.

DIM also modulated the genes associated with transcription of autophagy, compared with the hypoxia group.

DIM also protected the cells against apoptosis through inhibiting and exhibiting the proteins associated with anti-apoptosis and pro-apoptosis, respectively.

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol may be considered a supplement for the protection of heart muscle against the risk of heart disease, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane protects cardiomyocytes from LPS-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis by Luo Q1,2,3, Yang A1,2,3, Cao Q1,2,3, Guan H. (PubMed)
(2) 3,3'‑Diindolylmethane attenuates cardiomyocyte hypoxia by modulating autophagy in H9c2 cells by Liang K1, Qian WH1, Zong J. (PubMed)
(3) Familial dilated cardiomyopathy by The Genetics Home Reference. (NIH)

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