Intake of cruciferous vegetable may be inversely correlated with circulating of proinflammatory levels of in women, some scientists suggested.
Inflammation is a natural immune response involving the stimulated production of pro-inflammatory activity with a target to protect our body against foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria after injure and damage.
In other words, pro-inflammatory cytokines are activated through systematic immune response to the damage cells which release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins to protect the injure area or location against infection, leading to blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling and other symptoms such as pain, swelling, and redness.
Dr. Dinarello CA, the lead author in the study of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines said, " Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory), whereas others serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing (anti-inflammatory). Attention also has focused on blocking cytokines, which are harmful to the host, particularly during overwhelming infection".
In the study to investigate whether higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents can decrease the levels of inflammation in humans, researchers conducted an experiment to evaluate associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women.
After observation of the returned a food frequency questionnaire, researchers found that
* Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables.
* The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02).
* Inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables
* Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined.
These results suggested that daily intake of cruciferous vegetables may have a profound effect in reducing the risk of overexpression of inflammation in inducing chronic inflammatory diseases.
Dr. Jiang Y, the lead author, after taking into account co and con-founders said, " he previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables".
Sulforaphane (SFN) and Diallyl disulfide(DAFDs), the naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, in the highly metastatic B16F-10 melanoma
cells, both in vivo and in vitro models exerted a significant effect in killing cancer cells through a change of tumor cells membrane blebbing, DNA condensation, and also by nuclear DNA fragmentation.
Additional differentiation suggested that apoptosis of cancer cells induced by Sulforaphane (SFN) and Diallyl disulfide(DAFDs) was attributed to the involvement of proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
Dr. Pratheeshkumar P, the lead author of the study suggested, DADS induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through an induced cell death pathway in B16F-10 melanoma cells by activating...... and suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Other phytochemical found the vegetables, such as 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a derivative of indole-3-carbinol, also expressed anti proinflammatory effect through interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor.
In fact, chemical compounds found in the vegetable, not only inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the expression of chronic diseases and cancers but also involved in other aspects, such as environment airborne particulate pollutants, according to the East Campus - Laurentian University.
However, due to the limitation of above studies, further data collection on large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the whole food during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of garlic anti-cancer possibilities.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely correlated with circulating levels of proinflammatory markers in women by Jiang Y, Wu SH, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Ji BT, Milne GL, Cai Q, Zhang X, Gao YT, Zheng W, Yang G.(PubMed)
(2) Induction of apoptosis by sulforaphane in highly metastatic B16F-10 melanoma cells by Hamsa TP1, Thejass P, Kuttan G.(PubMed)
(3) The role of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic death pathway in gingerdione derivative I6-induced neuronal apoptosis by Lin CH1, Chen PS, Kuo SC, Huang LJ, Gean PW, Chiu TH.(PubMed)
(4) Oral administration of 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells in BALB/c mice by Kim EJ1, Shin M, Park H, Hong JE, Shin HK, Kim J, Kwon DY, Park JH. (PubMed)
(5) Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract by Ritz SA1, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D.(PubMed)