Tuesday, 2 October 2018

8 Delicious Vegetables That Kill Breast Cancer Cells in Vivo and Vitro, Researchers Suggest

Kyle J. Norton

The prevalence of breast cancer has been acknowledged in the scientific community worldwide.

Breast cancer widespread in women in Southeast Asian as a result of over 2 decades of economic prosperity caused by unhealthy diet is a major concern.

The findings for effective treatments are ongoing with some successes, but the discovery of effective ingredients for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer with little or no side effects have proven difficult.

According to statistic, the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during the lifetime of a woman is 1/8.

Detection of tumorigenesis through self-observation is still the best approach to discover breast cancer in an early stage.

According to the statistic provided by the American Breast Cancer Foundation, The 5 years and 10 years survival rate of breast cancer detected in the early stage is 100%.

But the reduction of the mortality at the late stage of breast cancer diagnosed has not been accounted, even with extensively modern technology in the field of diagnosis and insurance protection in the Western world.

Truly, The American Cancer Society (ACS) statistic states in women diagnosis at the late stage, "the five-year survival rate after diagnosis for people with stage 4 breast cancer is 22, percent. This percentage is considerably lower than at earlier stages".

Some scientists suggested that healthy diet with plenty vegetables and fruits(1)(2)(3) accompanied with the change of lifestyle(4)(5)(6) may be the only choice for women to reduce the risk of the disease.

In fact, certain vegetables(7)(8), fruits(9)(10) and bioactive phytochemicals found in foods(23)(24) and herbs(33)(34) have been found to induce apoptosis and anti-proliferation of breast cancer cells by blocking the energy sources to the tumor site and suppressing the promoted cancers genes.

1. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetable belongings to the family Brassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.

Isothiocyanate (ITC), one of the major chemical constituent found in cruciferous vegetables has been studied extensively over the past three decades against breast cancer in pre-clinical models.

Benzyl isothiocyanate, the derivative of isothiocyanate displayed an significant efficacy in inhibited carcinogen metabolism and signaling pathways relevant to tumor progression and invasion(11) against MDA-MB-231(breast cancer cell line), human breast cancer xenografts(mutation tissues)(12) by suppressing X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein expression of cancer cell line MCF-7 and reduced levels of mutations of p53(antigens) protein level(13).

Loss of normal function of p53 gene was associated with over 50% of cancer patients and mutation p53 gene may have an oncogenic potential.

P53, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle and functions of tumor suppression.
In Her-2 positive (a most aggressive case of breast cancer), indole-3-carbinol, a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables, used combination with paclitaxel (a mitotic inhibitor) synergistically inhibited growth of Her2/neu human breast cancer cells by cancer cells cycle arrest in the G2(pre-mitotic phase) and M(nuclear division) phase and induced apoptosis/necrosis(14).

I3C used alone also inhibited Her-2breast cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner through increasing production of Bax(an apoptosis promoter) and decreasing expression of Bcl-2(an apoptosis inhibitor) and, thereby, increasing the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in favoring apoptosis(15).

2. Tomatoes
Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongings to family Solanaceae, native to South America.

Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for commercial purpose and often in the greenhouse.

Lycopene, a major carotenoid component of tomato has been known in the research community with the property to attenuate the risk of breast cancer.

In a time and doses dependent, the compound showed an anti-proliferative activity against ER(estrogen receptor)/PR(progesterone receptor) positive MCF-7, HER2-positive SK-BR-3 and triple-negative MDA-MB-468 cell lines by arresting cell cycle at the G0 /G1phase(interphase together - chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division) at physiologically achievable concentrations(range) found in human plasma(16)

Lycopene also Inhibited the ER-positive MCF-7 through cell cycle progression, ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells through G1 phase cell cycle-arrest(17).

Application of lycopene not only restored the GSTP1 expression but also at 2 microM, once per week for 2 weeks induced demethylation of RARbeta2 (tumor suppressor gene) and the HIN-1(a cell growth inhibitor)) genes in the noncancer MCF10A fibrocystic breast cells(18).

3. Figs
N-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) found in figs may be lesser known for its efficacy in breast cancer cell suppressive activity.

The combination of HIF and doxorubicin exerted a greater inhibition on cell growth in (Human ductal breast epithelial tumor cell line) T47D cells and increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis, compared to doxorubicin alone(19).

The soluble fraction (Ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EASF)) in fig leave was also found to enhance the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin by changing the inhibition of cell cycle G(2)/M to G(1) phase(20).

And Acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) demonstrated an irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity by stimulating the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines and accelerated cell death through the photosensitizing effect(21).

4. Garlic
Garlic is a natural superfood with antibiotic antiviral, antifungal, anticoagulant, and antiseptic properties.

Diallyl trisulfide(DAS), a derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) suppressed the a ratio of viable cells in the culture of (Human breast cancer cell line) MCF-7 and MCF-12a (a non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line) by decreasing the percent of cancer cells in phase G(2)/M and induced apoptotic cell death through stimulated function of Bax protein and p53(cellular tumor antigen) protein expression(22).

Application of DAS also enhanced the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, a breast cancer suppressor, and decreased the effect of linoleic acid, a breast cancer enhancer and reduced the side effects caused by anti-cancer agents(23).

The protein fraction from garlic was effective in inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract in enhancing the CD8(+) T-cell infiltration into the tumor site(24).

5. Spinach

Spinach, an edible flowering plant in the genus Spinacia, belongings to the family of Amaranthaceae, is considered a healthy plant, containing various vitamins and minerals, native to central and southwestern Asia.

Consuming spinach was found to exhibit a significantly protective effect on breast cancer among premenopausal women(25).

Eating carrots or spinach more than twice weekly, compared with no intake, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.56 but did not distinguish among several potential explanations for the protective association, observed between intake of carrots and spinach and risk of breast cancer(26).

It is said that included supplementation of A. gangeticus aqueous extract of red spinach at 10% reduced progression of in breast cancer in the rat model(27).

6. Kelp
Kelps are large seaweeds (algae) growth under shallow in underwater of oceans belongings to the class Phaeophyceae in the order Laminariales, used for food in many cultures.

Laminaria, a brown kelp seaweed containing the antibiotic substance, 1-3 beta glucan, was effective inactivated host-mediated immune response in prevented the initiation of breast cancer(28).

Japanese seaweed (Laminaria angustata) extracts were also found to exert its antimutagenic effects in certain breast and colon carcinogen(29).

L-tryptophana substances isolated from the kelp rhizoid, may play an important role in the inhibition of breast cell proliferation(30)(31).

7. Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of the plant from the genus Capsicum, belongings to the nightshade family, Solanaceae, used in human history for spices and cultivated for commercial profits.

Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a chemical constituent of chili peppers used in many cultures as anticancer agent, inhibited the growth of ER-positive (MCF-7, T47D, BT-474) and ER-negative (SKBR-3, MDA-MB231) breast cancer cell lines, reduced 50% the size of MDA-MB231 breast cancer tumors(32), through inducing cellular apoptosis via a caspase-independent pathway in MCF-7 cells(33).

In the comparison of Dohevanil, researchers found that both vanilloids, precursor of capsaicin and dohevanil inhibited the growth of DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells(34).

8. Carrot
Carrot is root vegetable with orange color normally, a sub spice of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

Intake of cruciferous vegetable and carrot are inversely associations with risk of estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer(35).

Wild carrot or Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea) oil extract, used in traditional medicine in Lebanon and different regions throughout the world, was found to inhibit human colon (HT-29, Caco-2) and breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines, through apoptotic and antiproliferative activities(36).

The information findings once again emphasized the importance of a healthy diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits and change of lifestyle in breast cancer risk.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
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