Coffee, emerging as a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roast bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
1. Sex Hormones
Sex hormones are a class of hormones, affecting sexual development or reproduction. Steroid-binding globulin(SSBG), is a sex hormone, having a direct effect on androgen and estrogen.
A recent study suggested that coffee may have a direct effect in influence the production of sex hormone estrogen and testosterone depending on gender difference.
In an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial with Healthy adults (n = 42) recruited from the Boston community, including regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight, randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water per day, at 4 weeks, researchers surprisingly found that
* Decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with a borderline significantly increased levels of SHBG in women, but not in men.
* At week 4, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased only total testosterone in women.
* Contrasted to women participants, men consumption of caffeinated coffee displayed a significantly increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol hormones.
* The study also indicated that caffeinated coffee consumption does not exert any effect on SHBG in either men or women.
But conflicted to the healthy young adult, coffee and coffee caffeine showed an elevated effect as a mediator of sex hormone-binding globulin in both androgen and estrogen in type 2 diabetic patients, particularly in women.
Additionally, according to the cross-sectional study of 2377 nondiabetic pre- and postmenopausal women from the E3N cohort study in a multivariate-adjusted model, intake of more than 3 cups of coffee daily coffee and caffeine ≥265 mg/day were associated with an increased SHBG level distribution (<46.3 nmol/L), in compared to no risk association of decaffeinated coffee subgroup.
Furthermore, the prevention of low level of SHBG of both caffeinated coffee and caffeine may demonstrate a potential and positive effect in reduced risk of T2DM.
More importantly, in the examine a study during a median follow-up of 10 years of 359 postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes matched with 359 control subjects by age, race, duration of follow-up, and time of blood draw, coffee and caffeine were associated to increased levels of fee and total testosterone among postmenopausal women.
The evidence suggested that coffee and caffeine have an extreme effect in an exhibition of the sex hormone estrogen and testosterone through the lower level of SHBG in menopause women and prevented the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone through significantly increased levels of SHBG in women. And caffeinated coffee displayed a significantly increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol in men.
In the review of coffee caffeine effect in skin blood flow, researchers at the study lead by the Linköping University postulated that intake of caffeinated coffee exhibit a stronger expression in increased skin microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh)( non‐invasively introduce vasoactive drugs in regulating the neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions), in compared to decaffeinated coffee intake group.
The study also found that coffee caffeine after intake displayed a significant effect in microvascular responses in the forearm skin and decreased blood flow in the fingertips, during the first hour after of drinking;
These result suggested that caffeine in coffee showed an enormous activity in increased blood flow in certain areas of the body's skin and a decrease in others.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study performed in 27 healthy volunteers with oral intake of a cup either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee and reactive hyperemia of finger blood flow assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, within an interval of more than 2 days, the same experimental protocol was repeated with another coffee in a crossover manner, researchers showed that caffeinated coffee intake group demonstrated a slightly decreased finger blood flow in compared to decaffeinated coffee intake group.
According to the index of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, microvascular endothelial function, in compared with decaffeinated coffee intake, caffeine contained showed an important effect in enhanced microvascular function in healthy individuals.
In a randomized, double-blind, parallel groups design to rate anxiety, alertness, and headache before and after 100 mg caffeine and again after another 150 mg caffeine given 90 min later, or after placebo on both occasions, researchers indicated that caffeine intake expressed a clean effect in elevated alertness in compared to placebo.
Further differentiation also found that caffeine did not increase alertness in low caffeine intake participants, and noncaffeine administrated to medium and high intake groups displayed a reduced alertness effect and caffeine abstinence reduced alertness and consumption in compared to baseline.
Other, in the study of 30 healthy volunteers received equal volume drinks equivalent to either 1 or 2 cups of tea (containing 37.5 mg or 75 mg caffeine), or coffee (75 mg or 150 mg caffeine), or water, in a randomised five-way crossover design with drinks administered on four occasions during the day (0900, 1300, 1700 and 2300 hours), researchers found that there was no difference in all group in expression of alertness, but following the second beverage caffeinated coffee at 75 mg, there was a significantly improved reaction time (P<0.05), in compared to tea at the same dose and placebo.
Dr. Hindmarch I, the lead author said, " ingestion of caffeinated beverages may maintain aspects of cognitive and psychomotor performance throughout the day and evening when caffeinated beverages are administered repeatedly" and "This study also demonstrates that day-long tea consumption produces similar alerting effects to coffee, despite lower caffeine levels".
More importantly, in a total of 19 healthy volunteers ingested 400 ml black tea, coffee, caffeinated water, decaffeinated tea or plain water on three occasions through the day (0900, 1400 and 1900 hours), researchers filed the following reports
* Caffeine ingestion was associated with a rapid (10 min) and persistent improvement of alertness and again independent of time of day, but did not acutely alter CFF threshold.
* In compared to caffeine consumed group, water, and the decaffeinated group expressed a steady decline in alertness (LARS) and cognitive capacity over the whole day.
* Tea and coffee were similar on all measures, including alertness.
* Tea and coffee ingestion was associated with rapid increases in alertness and information processing capacity if the tea was drinking throughout the day, in compared to other groups.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver caused by fat accumulated (steatosis) in the liver other than excessive alcohol drinking.
According to a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis, coffee intake of 2 or more cups per day demonstrated a significant reduced liver symptom of stiffness, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, in compared to other subgroups.
Additionally, in the review of epidemiological and clinical evidence by the Zhejiang University, coffee intake may have a profoundly reduced severity and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence.
In fact, the effect of coffee on attenuated risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence may be also involved other chemical constituents other than caffeine.
Dr. Chen S, the lead researchers suggested that said, "Several possible mechanisms underlying coffee's hepatoprotective effects in NAFLD include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects".
Interestingly, the review of literature published in the database of Medline and Embase up to March 2015, showed that coffee and coffee caffeine intake have a strong impact in protecting the liver against complications of fibrosis incidence.
Information collected indicated that coffee and coffee caffeine intake have an enormous demonstration in ameliorated risk and symptoms of the Nonalcoholic liver disease, but some researchers suggested that other components such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects may also play an important role in the enhancement of these results.
According to the joint study led by the Huanggang Normal University, the health benefits of coffee studies over last 10 years, expressed a significant improvement of risk and treatment of obesity in decreased lipid accumulation in cells through regulating the cell cycle during fat metabolism.
Additionally, coffee consumption induced changes in transcription factors in fat deposit decreased body weight and visceral fat form of animal and humans studies
Furthermore, coffee influenced gut microbiota in obese animals and humans also played an important role for used as a functional and integrated food in reduced risk and treatment of obesity.
Other in the study of obesity-induced in mice using an HFD for four weeks, fed only HFD or HFD with GCBE at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg suggested that
* Mice treated with green coffee intake showed a significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight and white adipose tissue weights with the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis hormones, such as adiponectin and leptin.
* Mice treated with green coffee intake also demonstrated a decreased mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolis related genes in adipose tissues and the liver and decreased the corresponding protein expression.
* GCBE treated mice had a lower fat mass with decreased relative body weight and fat mass in compared to HFD alone fed mice.
According to the information collected, Dr. Choi BK, the led author said, "GCBE has a potential anti-obesity effect with lowering body fat accumulation by regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in WAT and liver".
More importantly, in the study of male mice fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days, researchers at the Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co,, Ltd, indicated that
* GCBE with 0.5% and 1% reduced visceral fat content and body weight.
* Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight.
* Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg. day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice.
* Chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg. day) reduced hepatic TG level.
The findings displayed a strong effect of coffee and its phytochemicals in reduced weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the liver may be considered as a functional and integrated food against risk and treatment of obesity.
In a prospective Finnish birth cohort of 4297 infants with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with blood samples collected from the children at 3-12 months intervals to measure type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies against islet cells (ICA), insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase, and islet antigen 2, returned questionnaire from mothers indicated that intake of coffee during perchance expresses an inversely associated risk of development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in their infants.
Even after adjusting to other risk factors, coffee showed a linearly dependent on the amount of cups intake of the mothers against the risk of β-cell autoimmunity incidence in newborns.
Additionally, in the review of data comprised 4297 children with increased genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, born at the University Hospital of Oulu or Tampere, Finland, between October 1997 and December 2002 monitored for diabetes-associated autoantibodies from samples obtained at 3-12-mo intervals, returned surveys from mothers indicated that coffee increased antioxidant status have a significant effect in reduced risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity development in children, compared to substantial risk of the offspring in mother who did not intake any antioxidant dietary nutrients.
Furthermore, Dr. Uusitalo L, the lead researcher said, "the hazard ratios, indicating the change in risk per a 2-fold increase in the intake of each antioxidant, were nonsignificant and close to 1" and "High maternal intake of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, or manganese does not protect the child from development of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in early childhood".
Interestingly, the returned questionnaires from participants in the data from a population-based case control study with incident cases of adult-onset (≥ 35 years) diabetes, including 245 cases of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody positive), 759 cases of Type 2 diabetes (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody negative), together with 990 control subjects without diabetes, randomly selected from the population, researchers found that intake of coffee may have an enormous effect in reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but conversely, coffee intake showed to associate to elevated risk of autoimmunity and possibly an increased risk of Type 1-like latent autoimmune diabetes in these group of adults.
Dr. Löfvenborg JE, the lead author in above study said, " for every additional cup of coffee consumed per day, there was a 15.2% (P = 0.0268) increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody levels".
Taking all together, There is no doubt that coffee consumption during pregnancy has a substantial effect in attenuated risk of type 1 diabetes caused by advanced β-cell autoimmunity. But coffee consumed in adulthood may increase the risk of Type 1-like latent autoimmune diabetes adults. contrastively.
According to the Warsaw Agricultural University, coffee and tea consumed daily and regularly expressed an increased risk of kidney stone by more than 80% in compared to the risk of other factors, probably due to the presence of oxalates found in coffee.
In fact, in the analyzed nutritional habits of 22 stone formers with special regard to oxalate content as one of the main nutritional lithogenic factors associated with kidney stones, researchers found that risk of kidney stone increased substantially for men and women if dietary oxalate intake was over 354 mg and 406 mg, respectively
Contrastively, a prospective study in investigated relation between intake of 21 different beverages and risk of symptomatic kidney stones in a cohort of 45,289 men, 40-75 years of age conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggested that the risk of stone formation decreased by 10%. of the amount for each 240-ml (8-oz) serving consumed daily in caffeinated coffee.
Other, in the analyzed association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II also found a contradictory result in related to coffee and other plant base caffeine products.
In a total of 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases of kidney stone occurred studies, researchers file the following results.
* The highest quintile of caffeine intake (95% CI: 12%, 38%) showed a significantly reduced risk of developing stones by 26%, according to the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS).
* Caffeine intake showed a 29 % lower risk in the NHS I cohort, and
* 31% lower risk in the NHS II cohort
Dr. the lead author said. "Among 6033 participants with 24-h urine data, the intake of caffeine was associated with higher urine volume, calcium, and potassium and with lower urine oxalate and supersaturation for calcium oxalate and uric acid".
In a cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and telomere length in 4780 women , using the data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) from a prospective cohort study of female nurses began in 1976 with relative telomere length measured in peripheral blood leukocytes by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, after adjusting to other risk factors, researchers found that
* Higher total coffee use was significantly associated with longer telomeres in compared to nondrinkers.
* Intake of 2 to <3 and ≥3 cups of coffee/d showed a relative ratio of 1.29 and 1.36, respectively.
* Telomere length was associated linearly to caffeine consumption from all dietary sources
The result of the findings showed a strong indication of the correlation between coffee caffeine intake and the length of telomeres among female nurses.
Dr. Liu JJ, the led author said, " ... better understand the influence of coffee consumption on telomeres, which may uncover new knowledge of how coffee-consumption affects health and longevity".
Other, in a study of total of 5826 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectionally, using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, telomere length compared to standard reference DNA, after adjusting to other risk factors, including age, gender, race, marital status, education, housing, smoking, BMI, physical activity, alcohol use,.. researchers showed that
* Caffeine consumption was inversely related to telomere length.
* For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed, telomeres were 35.4 base pairs shorter.
* For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed among coffee drinkers only, telomeres were 36.7 base pairs shorter.
* Among non-coffee drinkers only, 40.0 base pairs shorter.
In compared to nondrinker (40.0 base pairs shorter), coffee caffeine( 36.7 base pairs shorter) and caffeine( 35.4 base pairs shorter) intake expressed a positive effect in increased genetic telomeres length.
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
In a prospective study of 1744 non-diabetic pregnant women questioned during early gestation about their coffee consumption, researchers found that according to returned report, moderate coffee intake per day exerts a significantly decreased risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in expected mothers in compared to noncoffee intake pregnant women.
Dr. Adeney KL, the lead author said, "Moderate pre-pregnancy caffeinated coffee consumption may have a protective association with GDM".
Also, in the study of first trimester coffee and tea consumption and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on-diabetic women with singleton pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 71,239), researchers showed that pregnant women with coffee heavy consumption showed a substantially high percentage(81.2%) of complication of GDM, in compared to only 1.5% in non drinkers.
Importantly, the incidence of GDM of this study was highest in pregnant women who drink more than 8 cups of the coffee/day but without significant difference across intake in other levels.
With collective information from above study, it is safe to say, moderate coffee drinking in the first trimester may have a protective effect in reduced risk of GDM but increased risk of complication in diabetic expected mothers who drank over 8 cups of coffee per day.
The examine of the protective effect of coffee in pregnancy women, researchers performed a study included 168 pregnant women aged 18-40 years, recruited at routine 20-week ultrasound with all participants kept a 4-day weighed food record following recruitment (commencement: gestational weeks 19-24), a prudent dietary pattern including moderated coffee intake accompanied with seafood; eggs; vegetables; fruits and berries; vegetable oils; nuts and seeds; pasta; breakfast cereals; and coffee, tea, and cocoa powder is associated to reduced risk of GDM in pregnancy.
The findings suggested that moderated coffee consumption with less than 8 cups/day expressed a protective effect against GDM and GDM complications.
1. In compared to no heavy user, a heavy user of coffee showed a relative ratio of 1.55
2. The adjusted relative risk of suicide increased substantially in heavy coffee user if combined to increasing level of joint heavy use of alcohol and cigarettes.
In other words, heavy coffee intake of participants showed a significantly increased risk of suicide if accompanied by the heavy use of alcohol and cigarettes.
Dr. Tanskanen A, the led author said, " Clustering of the heavy use of ........coffee could serve as a new marker for increased risk of suicide".
To further support the differentiation of heavy coffee use in increased risk suicide, researchers at the
Center for Health Sciences, SRI International conducted a study of a multivariate structural equation modeling in a large cohort of male twins (N = 2,220 monozygotic and 2,373 dizygotic twin pairs; mean age = 62.1 years) from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council's World War II Twin Registry, strongly agreed that although genetic and environmental factors may account for the independent cluster risks, heavy coffee user displayed an enormous risk of suicide.
Other, in a 10-year follow-up study (1980 to 1990) in an ongoing cohort of 86 626 US female registered nurses aged 34 to 59 years in 1980, with free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer and Information on coffee and caffeine intake collected by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1980, researchers filed the following reports
1. There were 56 cases of suicide occurred during 832 704 person-years.
2. In compared to the nondrinker, coffee drinkers expressed a relative odd risk ratio of 0.34 women who consumed two to three cups per day
3. For women consumed four or more cups per day, the relative suicide risk was .42
4. After adjusting to other risk factors, the relative odds ratio remains constant
The finding showed an importantly correlated association of light and moderate coffee intake in reduced risk of suicide.
The efficacy in ameliorated risk of suicide among these women may be attributed to coffee activity in reduced incidence of depression as seen in other studies.
According to the Université de Nancy, Coffee and caffeine showed a significant effect in gene mutation in bacteria and fungi, but in high concentrations, they expressed also a similarly mutagenic influence to mammalian cells in culture.
The mutagenic activity of caffeine can be observed through its potentiate in induced chromosomal aberrations through transforming sublethal damage of mutagenic agents into lethal damage. But conversely, intake of coffee and caffeine demonstrated a protective effect in inhibiting these mutagenic properties through theirs' numerous chemicals depending on the time consumption in the presence of the mutagenic agent.
Furthermore, the study also revealed that chemically reactive components such as aliphatic dicarbonyls from the caffeine were some of the culprits attributed to this mutagenic exhibition.
The findings suggested the duo effect of coffee and coffee caffeine, on one hand, inhibited the gene mutation but on the hand displayed a significant mutagenic DNA damage to living organisms, but less inhuman even with a moderated drinking habit.
Also in bacterial experiments, according to the observation from bacteria mutation assays, trigonelline, found in caffeine alone or in combination with most of the single amino acids found in caffeine and mixtures of amino acids, showed a potent mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains.
Dr. Wu X, the lead author said, "Trigonelline and amino acids are natural components in green coffee beans. Model systems mimicking coffee roasting were used to produce heated samples of trigonelline, amino acids, and glucose".
Contrastingly, according to the coffee producing company, Nestlé Research Center, coffee intake have shown a strong effect in induced enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes and primary hepatocytes.
In animal study, the experiment also found that coffee induces the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in the promotion of cellular antioxidant defenses.
More importantly, coffee also exhibited chemoprotective effects of against toxic Aflatoxin B1 induced genotoxicity in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes.
Taking all together, coffee and coffee showed conflict results in inhibited and exhibited mutagenesis, but epidemiological studies agreed that coffee decreased the risk of genotoxicity against much chronic illness through regulating AFB1-DNA and protein.
Respiratory disease is a class of diseases involved abnormal lung function including conditions of the upper trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura,..... and pleural cavity.
In a review of 15 studies, including seven cohorts, six cross-sectional, one case-control, and one randomized control trial, researchers at the joint study led by the University of Coimbra, filed the below interesting results
* Risk of asthma was reduced in coffee injection group.
* Coffee accompanied with honey displayed a positive effect in treatment for persistent post-infectious cough.
* In a controlled study, the higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) prevalence was associated to coffee consumption.
* Coffee was also found to associate to lower respiratory mortality.
* Coffee injection group also benefit to improved lung function.
* Smoking was a significant risk factor in all cases.
With all the information collected, Dr. Alfaro TM, the lead authors proposed, "Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system" and "coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity."
Other, in the study filed by the CHU de Nancy, coffee consumption showed a contradictory effect involving respiratory diseases.
* Coffee intake showed a beneficial effect on bronchospasm.
* But on other studies, coffee intake has been suspected of contributing to the development of chronic airflow obstruction (COPD) and bronchial cancer.
The study explained these contrastive results may be attributed to the causal relationship in indirectly linking a strong positive correlation between the consumption of coffee and the use of tobacco.
The author also warned that coffee taken in large quantities by pregnant women may increase the risk of neonatal apnoea in the newborn if abrupt cessation in the caffeine level.
Also in the comparison of the prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma, researchers found that intake of coffee during pregnancy showed a strong effect in reduced risk of childhood asthma, according to the 63,652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Taking together, coffee intake has a strong protection against respiratory diseases(including reduced risk of childhood asthma), but increased incidences of chronic airflow obstruction (COPD), and bronchial cancer, therefore, people with above exceptive disease should reduce intake of coffee and consult with their doctors.
Thyroid cancer is a chronic condition of irregular cell growth in the thyroid gland.
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roast bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
In the review of the database from Published studies in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer, researchers at the joint study lead by the Chosun University, filed the following results.
1. In a total of 1039 thyroid cancer cases and 220,816 controls were identified from five case-control studies and two cohort studies, the relative risk ratio of cancer incidence was 0.88 in compared to the baseline.
2. Risk of thyroid cancer was reduced significantly only in hospital-based case-control studies.
Dr. Han MA, the head researcher said, "There was no significant association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk according to our meta-analysis results" and "There was no significant heterogeneity among the study results".
Other, in the analyzed data from a prospective cohort (100,507 persons (48,802 men; 51,705 women) aged 40-69) between green tea and coffee consumption and risk of thyroid cancer, assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, researchers at the National Cancer Center found no association between coffee intake and risk of thyroid cancer regardless to gender and amount of coffee intake per day.
Furthermore, in the pool sample consisted of 2725 thyroid cancer cases (2247 females, 478 males) and 4776 controls (3699 females, 1077 males), through intensive analysis of 14 case-control studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia suggested that the risk of thyroid cancer is not associated with coffee consumption, independent of gender difference.
The study also emphasized that even taking into account other factors, caffeinated beverages did not alter thyroid cancer risk.
Contrastively, according to Aretaieion University Hospital, in a case-control, serially matched study containing 70 patients with thyroid cancer, 55 with benign thyroid disease and 71 controls, there were significantly reduced the risk of thyroid disease among coffee and coffee caffeine drinkers. Even after adjustment for possible confounding variables, the association remained statistically significant
Dr. Linos A, the lead author said, " The mechanism by which coffee consumption may play a protective role against the development of benign or malignant thyroid neoplasms may be the stimulatory effect of caffeine on the intracellular cyclic AMP production, which is known to inhibit cell growth".
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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial by Wedick NM1, Mantzoros CS, Ding EL, Brennan AM, Rosner B, Rimm EB, Hu FB, van Dam RM.(PubMed)
(2) Cross-sectional association of coffee and caffeine consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin in healthy nondiabetic women by Pihan-Le Bars F1,2, Gusto G3,4,5, Boutron-Ruault MC3,4,5, Fagherazzi G3,4,5, Bonnet F1,2,3.(PubMed)
(3) Coffee and caffeine consumption in relation to sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women by Goto A1, Song Y, Chen BH, Manson JE, Buring JE, Liu S.(PubMed)
(5) Effect of caffeine contained in a cup of coffee on microvascular function in healthy subjects by Noguchi K1, Matsuzaki T2, Sakanashi M2, Hamadate N2, Uchida T2, Kina-Tanada M2, Kubota H2, Nakasone J2, Sakanashi M2, Ueda S3, Masuzaki H4, Ishiuchi S5, Ohya Y6, Tsutsui M7.(PubMed)
(6) Association of the anxiogenic and alerting effects of caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 polymorphisms and habitual level of caffeine consumption by Rogers PJ1, Hohoff C, Heatherley SV, Mullings EL, Maxfield PJ, Evershed RP, Deckert J, Nutt DJ.(PubMed)
(7) A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality by Hindmarch I1, Rigney U, Stanley N, Quinlan P, Rycroft J, Lane J.(PubMed)
(8) The effects of black tea and other beverages on aspects of cognition and psychomotor performance by Hindmarch I1, Quinlan PT, Moore KL, Parkin C.(PubMed)
(9) Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B by Hodge A1,2, Lim S3, Goh E4, Wong O5, Marsh P6, Knight V7, Sievert W8,9, de Courten B10.(PubMed)
(10) Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: brewing evidence for hepatoprotection? by Chen S1, Teoh NC, Chitturi S, Farrell GC.(PubMed)
(11) Coffee and tea consumption in relation with non-alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies by Marventano S1, Salomone F2, Godos J3, Pluchinotta F4, Del Rio D5, Mistretta A1, Grosso G6.(PubMed)
(12) Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B by Hodge A1,2, Lim S3, Goh E4, Wong O5, Marsh P6, Knight V7, Sievert W8,9, de Courten B10.(PubMed)
(13) Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: brewing evidence for hepatoprotection? by Chen S1, Teoh NC, Chitturi S, Farrell GC.(PubMed)
(14) Coffee and tea consumption in relation with non-alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies by Marventano S1, Salomone F2, Godos J3, Pluchinotta F4, Del Rio D5, Mistretta A1, Grosso G6.(PubMed)
(16) Green coffee bean extract improves obesity by decreasing body fat in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by Choi BK1, Park SB2, Lee DR1, Lee HJ2, Jin YY3, Yang SH4, Suh JW5.(PubMed)
(17) Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice by Shimoda H1, Seki E, Aitani M.(PubMed)
(18) Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and risk of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring by Virtanen SM1, Uusitalo L, Kenward MG, Nevalainen J, Uusitalo U, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Ovaskainen ML, Arkkola T, Niinistö S, Hakulinen T, Ahonen S, Simell O, Ilonen J, Veijola R, Knip M.(PubMed)
(19) Intake of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements during pregnancy and risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child by Uusitalo L1, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, Uusitalo U, Nevalainen J, Niinistö S, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Ovaskainen ML, Marjamäki L, Simell O, Ilonen J, Veijola R, Knip M.(PubMed)
(20) Coffee consumption and the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults--results from a Swedish case-control study by Löfvenborg JE1, Andersson T, Carlsson PO, Dorkhan M, Groop L, Martinell M, Rasouli B, Storm P, Tuomi T, Carlsson S.(PubMed)
(22) Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones by Ferraro PM1, Taylor EN1, Gambaro G1, Curhan GC1.(PubMed)
(23) Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones by Curhan GC1, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ.(PubMed)
(24) Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses' Health Study by Liu JJ1, Crous-Bou M2, Giovannucci E3, De Vivo I4.(PubMed)
(25) Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) by Tucker LA1.(PubMed)
(26) Coffee consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by Adeney KL1, Williams MA, Schiff MA, Qiu C, Sorensen TK.(PubMed)
(27) First trimester coffee and tea intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a study within a national birth cohort by Hinkle SN1, Laughon SK, Catov JM, Olsen J, Bech BH.(PubMed)
(28) Joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee and the risk of suicide by Tanskanen A1, Tuomilehto J, Viinamäki H, Vartiainen E, Lehtonen J, Puska P.(PubMed)
(29) A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women by Kawachi I1, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE.(PubMed)
(30) Heavy consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and coffee in male twins by Swan GE1, Carmelli D, Cardon LR.(PubMed)(1) Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review by Nehlig A1, Debry G.(PubMed)
(31) Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee? by Wu X1, Skog K, Jägerstad M.(PubMed)
(32) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver by Cavin C1, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B.(PubMed)
(34) [Effects of coffee on the respiratory system].[Article in French] by Martinet Y1, Debry G.(PubMed)
(35) Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma by Liu X1, Liew Z2, Olsen J1,2, Pedersen LH3, Bech BH1, Agerbo E4,5, Yuan W6, Li J7.(PubMed)(1) Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Han MA1, Kim JH2.(PubMed)
(36) Green tea and coffee consumption and its association with thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study in Japan by Michikawa T1, Inoue M, Shimazu T, Sasazuki S, Iwasaki M, Sawada N, Yamaji T, Tsugane S.(PubMed)
(37) A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer: cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea by Mack WJ1, Preston-Martin S, Dal Maso L, Galanti R, Xiang M, Franceschi S, Hallquist A, Jin F, Kolonel L, La Vecchia C, Levi F, Linos A, Lund E, McTiernan A, Mabuchi K, Negri E, Wingren G, Ron E.(PubMed)
(38) Does coffee consumption protect against thyroid disease? by Linos A1, Linos DA, Vgotza N, Souvatzoglou A, Koutras DA.(PubMed)