Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reducing risk and treating melanoma, some scientists suggested.
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer characterized by irregular cell growth in the pigment-containing cell.
At the later stage, the cancerous cell may invade other healthy tissues and organs a distance away from the original site.
the exact causes of Melanoma are unknown. However, some researchers suggested that it is likely caused by a combination of factors.
Truly, certain risk factors, such as environmental and genetic factors, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun are associated with increased risk of the disease.
According to statistic, approximately 87,110 new cases of invasive melanoma were diagnosed in the U.S. in 2017.
The American Cancer association single out mutation of tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A and CDK4 that preventing them from doing their normal job of controlling cell growth is one of the major causes of melanoma.
Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deep purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.
In the evaluation of the effect of glycoalkaloids, the nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in numerous Solanaceous plants including eggplants in numbers of cancer cell lines, researchers showed that the isolated phytochemicals express a significant effect of inhibition of the process of the early stage of various types of cancer occurrence through inducing cancer cells apoptosis.
Further analysis, glycoalkaloids efficacy was attributed to the derived phytochemical compound solamargine inactivation of antioxidant activity against the formation of skin cancer through expression several biomarkers and signaling pathways.
In primary melanoma cell lines WM239 and WM115, application of solamargine with half inhibitory concentration IC50 demonstrated a profound effect of inhibited the growth of metastatic cancer cells and initiated apoptosis, through overexpression of lysosomal membrane permeabilization induced by leaky lysosomes during cell death, detected by lysosomalgalectin puncta assay, without causing damage to normal and benign skin cells, namely, WM35.
Observation of the cellular necrosis also indicated that solamargine's anti-skin cancer effect was confirmed by overexpression of cathepsin B which is considered as a biomarker of malignant lesions and various cancers by triggering extrinsic mitochondrial death pathway function in activated cellular apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and apoptotic tumor necrosis factor receptor-1(TNFR1).
Moreover, injection of the derivative solamargine also disrupted the intrinsic apoptosis pathway
through reduced expression of hILP/XIAP, an inhibitor of apoptotic cell death by blocking tumor cells proliferation.
Additional differentiation also suggested that the derivative solamargine also blocked the
expression of TNF receptor associated with tumors proliferation, survival, and differentiation to increase expression of proteins Bcl-xL, and Bcl2 that regulate anti-apoptosis, anti-cell cycle arrest.
Unlike other phytochemicals such as green tea EGCG inhibited apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, eggplant derivative solamargine selectively triggered melanoma cancer cells death through only death receptors.
After taking account of other confounders, Dr, Sana S. said, " Solamargine showed high efficacy in vitro particularly against the vertical growth phase (forming a true tumor) melanoma cells".
Taken together, eggplant with abundant glycoalkaloids may be considered as a functional food to ameliorated risk, progression, and treatment of melanoma. Intake of eggplant supplement should be taken with special care and only prescribed by experts.
However, additional data collection on large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the eggplant whole food during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of the night shape veggie's anti-cancer possibilities.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes by Friedman M1(PubMed)
(1) Solamargine triggers cellular necrosis selectively in different types of human melanoma cancer cells through extrinsic lysosomal mitochondrial death pathway by Sana S. Al Sinani, Elsadig A. Eltayeb, Brenda L. Coomber, and Sirin A. Adham(PMC)
(3) Solamargine triggers cellular necrosis selectively in different types of human melanoma cancer cells through extrinsic lysosomal mitochondrial death pathway by Sana S. Al Sinani, Elsadig A Eltayeb, Brenda L. Coomber and Sirin A. Adham(Cancer cell international)
(4) Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications by Brahma N. Singh,1 Sharmila Shankar,2 and Rakesh K. Srivastava*(PMC)