Sunday, 3 March 2019

Phytochemical Sinigrin, the Potential Anti Bladder Cancer Bioactive Compound, Scientists Reveal

By Kyle J. Norton

Phytochemical Sinigrin may be used as a natural ingredient for the treatment of bladder cancer, according to studies.

Bladder cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth uncontrollably in the bladder tissue, due to the alternation of DNA.

Most cases of bladder cancer start in the cells of the inner lining of the bladder tissue. At the early, due to the small size and on the surface of the inner lining, most patients do not experience any symptoms.

However, at the advanced stage, the larger size tumor may press on the nearby blood vessels and nerve cells, leading to the symptoms of burning sensation, blood in the urine, abnormal urinary activity, particularly, severe abdominal pain and back pain on one side of the body.

If you experience some of the symptoms, please check with your doctor to rule out the possibility of bladder cancer.

Also, at this stage, the cancer cells can also travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissues and organs, leading to secondary metastasis.

Epidemiologically, smoking, the increased in age, chronic bladder inflammation and long-term exposure to toxic chemicals are the most prevalent risk factors for bladder cancer.

Recently, some researchers start to question the risk of bladder cancer in the obese population.

Dr. Qin Q. wrote, "A total of 11 cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis, which showed that obesity was associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in all subjects (RR=1.10, 95% CI=1.06-1.16; p=0.215 for heterogeneity; I2=24.0%). Among the 9 studies that controlled for cigarette smoking, the pooled RR was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.17; p=0.131 for heterogeneity; I2=35.9%)"

Compared to the RR ratio, obesity and cigarette smoking shared the extreme close ratio of 1.09 and 1.10 respectively. In other words, if you are obese, your risk of bladder cancer is 0.01 higher compared to smokers.

Sinigrin is a phytochemical glucosinolate, belongs to the family of glucosides found abundantly in Brussels sprouts, broccoli, the seeds of black mustard, etc.

Researchers on finding a bioactive compound for the treatment of bladder cancer examined the effects of AITC-rich mustard seed powder (MSP-1) with AITC stably stored as its glucosinolate precursor (sinigrin) in MSP-1.

In a rat model, hydrated MSP-1 caused apoptosis and G(2)/M phase arrest in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro.

In the comparison of cancer activity between hydrated MSP-1 and pure sinigrin with added myrosinase, researchers surprisingly found that the anticancer effect of MSP-1 was derived principally, if not entirely, from the AITC generated from sinigrin.

In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, oral MSP-1 at 71.5 mg/kg (sinigrin dose of 9 ╬╝mol/kg) inhibited bladder cancer growth by 34.5% (P < 0.05) and blocked muscle invasion by 100%.

The in-depth analysis suggested that the anti-bladder cancer efficacy of MSP-1 was attributed to significant modulation of key cancer therapeutic targets, including blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor in the generation of the new blood vessels to promote cancer growth, a cyclin-associated to cancer cell division and caspase correlated with significantly increased rate of cancer recurrence and deaths.

Furthermore, the anticancer activity of  AITC delivered as MSP-1 appears to be more robust compared to that of pure AITC.

The finding strongly suggested that MSP-1 exhibited the AITC in the inhibition of bladder cancer development and progression.

Moreover, in the investigation of the effect of various dose levels of AITC on the activities of the phase II detoxification enzymes quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat tissues, researchers conducted an experiment with selected rat was given high and low dose level of AITC daily for 5 days.

At low doses, AITC increased the production of antioxidant enzyme activity observed only in the urinary bladder of the rats, at a dose of AITC of only 10 micromol/kg/day.

In the activities of phase II, detoxification enzymes quinone reductase (QR), a plateau of activity of rats given the injection AITC for 21 days was reached after 15 daily doses of AITC, but GST activity continued to increase with continued exposure, and no plateau was reached after 21 doses.

Further examination of the levels of enzymes in the treated rats, researchers surprisingly found that the dose level of AITC is effective in rats approaches the level that could only be achieved through human consumption of Brassica.

The results strongly support the use of dietary approaches for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. Dr. the lead scientist said, "induction of phase II enzymes by food-derived isothiocyanates could contribute to the lower incidence of bladder cancer observed in individuals who regularly consume such vegetables".

Taken altogether, sinigrin, a bioactive ingredient found in the Brassica may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer, pending to the confirmation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Allyl isothiocyanate-rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by Bhattacharya A1, Li Y, Wade KL, Paonessa JD, Fahey JW, Zhang Y. (PubMed)
(2) Selective induction of phase II enzymes in the urinary bladder of rats by allyl isothiocyanate, a compound derived from Brassica vegetables by Munday R1, Munday CM. (PubMed)
(3) Obesity and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies by Qin Q1, Xu X, Wang X, Zheng XY. (PubMed)

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