Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system against the stimuli and foreign pathogens which try to enter the body through wound or injury.
In the acute phase of infection, after receiving the message transmitted by the central nervous system, the immune macrophages stimulating the blood palette to cover the affected site and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to protect the body against microorganisms.
Some anti-inflammatory cytokines in this phase may also switch to proinflammatory activity, causing overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines.
In some cases, depending on the severity of the wound, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines may cause damage and death of nearby cells, leading to the formation of scars.
Most common symptoms of the acute phase of infection area pain, swelling and redness in the affected areas.
If the immune macrophages kill off the foreign pathogens in the acute phase of infection, the inflammatory progress proceeds to other stages including the stage one of acute phase of infection followed by the repair and regeneration stage, where collagen fibers are formed then by the remodeling and maturation stage, where the new tissue continue to remodel, strengthen and improve.
Researchers on the finding a natural therapeutics for the treatment of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the disease has been found to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines that promote inflammatory bone destruction, investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract from Cynara scolymus L. and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).
Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)used in the study were induced inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Based on the finding, Dr. Ben Salem M, the lead scientist wrote, "ALE displayed high potential as a natural source of minerals and phytochemicals compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties".
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus L. suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by Hayata M1,2, Watanabe N2,3, Kamio N2, Tamura M2, Nodomi K2, Tanaka K4, Iddamalgoda A4, Tsuda H5, Ogata Y6, Sato S3, Ueda K1, Imai K. (PubMed)
(2) Chemicals Compositions, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cynara scolymus Leaves Extracts, and Analysis of Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC by Ben Salem M1, Affes H1, Athmouni K2, Ksouda K1, Dhouibi R1, Sahnoun Z1, Hammami S1, Zeghal KM. (PubMed)