Friday, 29 March 2019

Herbal Artichoke, the Anti Inflammatory Bioactive Compound

By Kyle J. Norton

 Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system against the stimuli and foreign pathogens which try to enter the body through wound or injury.

In the acute phase of infection, after receiving the message transmitted by the central nervous system, the immune macrophages stimulating the blood palette to cover the affected site and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to protect the body against microorganisms.

Some anti-inflammatory cytokines in this phase may also switch to proinflammatory activity, causing overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines.

In some cases, depending on the severity of the wound, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines may cause damage and death of nearby cells, leading to the formation of scars.

Most common symptoms of the acute phase of infection area pain, swelling and redness in the affected areas.

If the immune macrophages kill off the foreign pathogens in the acute phase of infection, the inflammatory progress proceeds to other stages including the stage one of acute phase of infection followed by the repair and regeneration stage, where collagen fibers are formed then by the remodeling and maturation stage, where the new tissue continue to remodel, strengthen and improve.

Chronic inflammation occurs if the immune system can not kill off all invaders within a set period, it will adapt to the news change, leading to chronic low-grade inflammation, the major cause of various chronic illness, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Artichoke is a perennial thistle of Cynara cardunculus species of the Cynara genus, belonging to the family Carduoideae native to Southern Europe around the Mediterranean.

The herbal plant has been used in traditional medicine as a liver protective and detoxified agent, and to treat digestive disorders, abdominal pain gas and bloating, etc.

Researchers on the finding a natural therapeutics for the treatment of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the disease has been found to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines that promote inflammatory bone destruction, investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract from Cynara scolymus L. and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).

Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)used in the study were induced inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Artichoke bioactive compound injection inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner.

P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of enzymes and proteins in the cellular response to inflammation were also suppressed by cynaropicrin.

The additional analysis also suggested that cynaropicrin's inhibition of P. gingivalis LPS-induced production pro-inflammatory expression may be due to the inhibition of the activation of the inflammatory pathways.

Dr. Hayata M, the lead scientist said, "These results suggest that cynaropicrin may be useful for preventing periodontal diseases and could prove valuable in the development of more effective preventative approaches for periodontal diseases".

In order to reaffirm the efficacy of artichoke anti-inflammatory activity, researchers at the University of Sfax examined the Artichoke Leaves Extracts (ALE) phytochemical and antioxidant activity by several methods such as DDPH, ABTS, FRAP, and beta-carotene bleaching test. 

In the carrageenan (Carr) model induced paw edema, EtOH extract of ALE contained the highest phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents exerted the strongest antioxidants activities, according to the DDPH (94.23%), ABTS (538.75 mmol), FRAP assay (542.62 umol), and ╬▓-carotene bleaching (70.74%) compared to the other extracts of ALE.

Moreover, administration of EtOH extract at dose 400 mg/kg/bw exhibited a maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by Carr for 3 and 5 hours compared to reference group Indomethacin (Indo).

Based on the finding, Dr. Ben Salem M, the lead scientist wrote, "ALE displayed high potential as a natural source of minerals and phytochemicals compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties".

Taken altogether, artichoke processed abundantly bioactive compound may be considered a functional remedy for the treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, with no side effects, pending to the validation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus L. suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by Hayata M1,2, Watanabe N2,3, Kamio N2, Tamura M2, Nodomi K2, Tanaka K4, Iddamalgoda A4, Tsuda H5, Ogata Y6, Sato S3, Ueda K1, Imai K. (PubMed)
(2) Chemicals Compositions, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cynara scolymus Leaves Extracts, and Analysis of Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC by Ben Salem M1, Affes H1, Athmouni K2, Ksouda K1, Dhouibi R1, Sahnoun Z1, Hammami S1, Zeghal KM. (PubMed)

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