Sunday, 31 March 2019

Herbal Ginger, the Anti-Virulence Functional Remedy

By Kyle J. Norton

Virulence activities are actions in which a pathogen infects or damages a host.

The virulence factors have been found epidemiologically to provide the best environment for the bacteria to invade, cause disease, and evade host defenses. 

There are types of virulence factors associated with the initiation of bacterial infection, including
* The adherence factors, where the pathogenic bacteria colonize mucosal sites by using pili (fimbriae) to adhere to the host cells.
* The invasion factors:  the bacterium to invade host cells through penetrating into host cell membranes or stimulating their own endocytosis or macro-pinocytosis into host cells.
 * The capsules: many bacteria are surrounded by capsules that protect them from the hard environment.
* The endotoxins are toxins on Gram-negative bacteria that cause fever, changes in blood pressure, inflammation, lethal shock, and many other toxic events.
* The exotoxins: where the bacteria inject poison to host cells and cause tissue damage.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root, the second superfood used for thousands of years by mankind, is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil.

The root has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.

Researchers on finding a bioactive compound for the treatment of infection associated with virulence examined the effects of 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol against Candida albicans.

6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 6-shogaol effectively inhibited biofilm formation.

6-shogaol at 10 μg/ml significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation but had no effect on planktonic cell growth.

Also, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol inhibited hyphal growth in embedded colonies and free-living planktonic cells and prevented cell aggregation.

Furthermore, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced C. albicans virulence in a nematode infection model without causing toxicity at the tested concentrations.

These results suggested that the antibiofilm and antivirulence activities of the ginger components, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, were attributed to the inhibition of the proteins associated with a multidrug
resistance gene and a cytolytic peptide toxin from Candida albicans.

In order to reveal more information about the ginger effects antibiofilm activity, researchers examined the antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm potential of fresh and cooked ginger water extracts (FGE and CGE, respectively).

Compared to CGE, FGE displayed high potential anti-adhesive and antibiofilm in vitro. 

 20 mg DTSS /mL of FGE led to reducing the adhesive of bacterial cells to HEp-2 cells by about 50%. 

The results showed that ginger water extract processed the desired anti-adhesive and antibiofilm potential against the food-related pathogens.

Taken altogether, ginger processed a high amount of bioactive compound may be considered a functional remedy for the inhibition of biofilm activities, without inducing any side effects.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Antibiofilm and Anti-Adhesive Effects of Ginger against Some Food-Related Pathogens by Ghada M. Khiralla. (Journal of Food Research and Technology)
(2) Antibiofilm and Antivirulence Activities of 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol Against Candida albicans Due to Hyphal Inhibition by Jin-Hyung Lee,1,† Yong-Guy Kim,1,† Pilju Choi,2 Jungyeob Ham,2 Jae Gyu Park,3,* andJintae Lee. (PMC)
(3) Chapter 7Bacterial Pathogenesis by Johnny W. Peterson. (NCBI)

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