Saturday, 30 March 2019

Phytochemical Sinigrin, The Antibacterial Functional Supplement

By Kyle J. Norton

Bacterias are a class of microorganism consisted of a single cell with a simple internal structure with a number of different shapes.

Not all bacterias are harmful to human. Some are essential to human life, with benefits related to improve the digestive function, prevent overexpression of harmful disease-causing bacteria, and the synthesis of essential nutrients and vitamins.

Believe or not, human gut contains over 10 trillions of bacterias including at least 1000 different species of known bacteria with more than 3 million genes.

In a healthy individual, the levels of microorganisms in the gut are balanced.

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in breaking down foods that stomach and small intestines cannot digest, stimulating the production of vitamin K and D, protecting the intestinal against damage caused by bad bacteria and increasing the immune functioning. 

Bacterias that cause disease are called pathogenic microorganisms.

Epidemiological studies suggested that Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is one of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, killing over 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.

Other pathogenic bacterias include Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella.

According to the statistics, pathogenic bacterial infection is a leading cause of death of infants in developing countries.

On the finding a bioactive ingredient with antibacterial activity, researchers examined allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) is derived from the glucosinolate sinigrin in E. coli O157:H7 numbers in food products.

Injection of AIT showed a greater antimicrobial activity at low pH values. In other words, at pH 4.5 and 5.5 the MIC was 25 microL/L, while at pH 8.5, 500 microL/L was required to inhibit bacterial growth. 

Furthermore, bacterial decomposition was found at the highest rate in water at 37 degrees C.

Moreover, in bacterial enzymes (the thioredoxin reductase and acetate kinase), AIT at 10 to 100 microL/L was able to significantly inhibit both enzymes, but only 1 microL/L was needed to decrease the activity of thioredoxin reductase.

Interestingly, in a Nanocomposite carboxymethyl cellulose films tested on Escherichia coli O157:H7-containing sinigrin (SNG) prepared by stirring 2% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 2% (w/v) glycerol (as a plasticizer) in distilled water with or without SNG (an antimicrobial precursor) as a 99% pure reagent (pSNG) or as a crude extract (cSNG), researchers found that
* In beef pieces measuring 6 × 5 × 2 cm(3) (L × W × H) were dipped in an E. coli O157:H7 broth suspension containing >8 log10 CFU ml(-1) and were drained for 3 min over a sterile cloth, the CMC and NCMC films without SNG were not antimicrobial against E. coli O157:H7; however, NCMC and CMC films with SNG were highly antimicrobial.

* After 5 days at 8°C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced more than 4 log10 by the NCMC•pSNG film.

* The reduction remained almost the same until 18 days at 8°C when E. coli O157:H7 was reduced >5 log10 CFU g(-1) meat.

The findings strongly support the use of sinigrin for food storage against bacteria.

Taken altogether, sinigrin a bioactive ingredient in cruciferous vegetables may be considered a functional supplement for the treatment of bacterial infection, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

However, intake of bioactive in form of supplement should be taken with extreme care, as liver toxicity may be induced if overdosed.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits by Anisha Mazumder, Anupma Dwivedi and Jeanetta du Plessis. (Molecules)

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