Sunday, 17 March 2019

Phytochemical 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis

By Kyle J. Norton

Renal fibrosis is a progressive condition caused by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix including collagen, enzymes, and glycoproteins which provided structural and biochemical support of surrounding the renal cells during aging and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

According to the statistics, CKD and renal fibrosis affect approximately half of the adult's age 70 and over and 10% of the world's population.

In other words, renal fibrosis is a direct consequence caused by the inability of the kidney to regenerate after injury, leading to the formation of renal scars that results in a progressive loss of renal function.

Most cases of renal fibrosis ultimately lead to end-stage renal failure and a need for dialysis or kidney transplantation.

At the early stage of renal fibrosis, patients may experience symptoms of dull pain in the abdomen or back, pain on one side between your upper abdomen and back, leg pain. discoloration swelling in one or both legs. 

If you have some of the aforementioned symptoms, you may have renal fibrosis, please make sure that you check with your doctor to rule out the possibility.

In dialysis point of view in patients with renal fibrosis, Dr. Menn-Josephy H in the examined the risk of dialysis in patients with renal fibrosis wrote, "Surprisingly, 13.9% of patients with normal renal function had 25-49% fibrosis and 5% had more than 50% fibrosis on biopsy, and 5 years after undergoing biopsy 21% of patients with >50% fibrosis still remained dialysis-free. Conclusion: Renal fibrosis is an imperfect prognostic indicator for the development of ESRD and caution should be exercised in applying it too rigidly, especially in elderly or diabetic patients".

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

In the urgency to discover the potential compound for the treatment of renal fibrosis, researchers examined the effects of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) a natural acid condensation extracted from cruciferous plants, on renal fibrosis.

Where DIM has been found to process anti-hepatic and cardiac fibrosis models in a number of studies.

The study included the established unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated normal rat kidney (NRK)-49F fibroblast cell mouse models.

Injection of DIM reduced kidney injury and production of interstitial collagens fibrosis. 

In the UUO model, DIM inhibited expression of fibronectin, collagen-1 associated with the formation of scars but retain E-cadherin involved the formation of adherens junctions to bind cells with each other. 

In other words, DIM protected the renal cells against the induction of renal fibrosis.

In vivo and in vitro, administration of DIM is also found to suppress local fibroblast activation observed by the levels of myofibroblast markers α-SMA and vimentin.

Most importantly, DIM significantly inhibited the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced abnormal proliferation of NRK49F cells, in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

Furthermore, DIM also inhibited the expression of Smad2 phosphorylation in the formation of renal scar tissue. 

Based on the results, researchers concluded that DIM protects the renal cell integrity by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling against the formation of renal fibrosis.

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of renal fibrosis, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane ameliorates renal fibrosis through the inhibition of renal fibroblast activation in vivo and in vitro by Xia ZE1, Xi JL2, Shi L. (PubMed)
(2) Renal Interstitial Fibrosis: An Imperfect Predictor of Kidney Disease Progression in Some Patient by CohortsMenn-Josephy H.a · Lee C.S.a · Nolin A.a · Christov M.c · Rybin D.V.d · Weinberg J.M.e · Henderson J.b · Bonegio R.a · Havasi A.(PubMed)

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