Monday, 18 March 2019

Artichoke Protects the Brian Neurons Against Learning and Memory Impairment

By Kyle J. Norton

Learning is an action of acquired skill or knowledge in a short or lifelong process.

Memory is an action of storing the acquired knowledge expressed them when they are needed.

In other words, learning and memory is a process involved different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval.

There are many causes of neurons loss in facilitating the onset of learning and memory impairment. In fact, neuronal apoptosis has been reported to play a key role in the impairment of learning and memory processes.

Several toxins such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid have been found to utilize based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment.

Toxins induced amyloid-β deposits are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

Environmental pollutant, such as botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide are also considered various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment.

Although the increase in aging has been well known to be a major factor in the initiation of the learning and memory impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease, genetic mutation also have a strong implication on cognitive functions that can lead to either impairment in learning and memory.

Dr. Niu Q, the lead scientist, in the assessment of the acquired genetic mutation  in patients with learning and memory impairment said, "Neuronal apoptosis has become a focus of interest, as it has been reported to play a key role in the impairment of learning and memory processes (Thompson, Science 267:1456, 1995). The Bcl-2 gene acts as an important effector for inhibiting apoptosis".

"Neuronal apoptosis was extensive in the brain of Al-exposed groups, and the expressions of Bcl-2 protein in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of Al-exposed rats was stronger... and chronic Al-exposure in rats is associated with neuronal apoptosis in the brain, and impaired learning and memory. Augmented Bcl-2 protein expression may be a stimulated compensatory mechanism".

The findings strongly suggested that gene alternation due to long-term exposure to toxic chemical cause gradual loss and death neurons, leading to learning and memory impairment.

Artichoke is a perennial thistle of Cynara cardunculus species of the Cynara genus, belonging to the family Carduoideae native to Southern Europe around the Mediterranean.

The herbal plant has been used in traditional medicine for as liver protective and detoxified agent, and to treat digestive disorders, abdominal pain gas and bloating, etc.

Researchers on the finding a natural therapeutics for the treatment of learning and memory impairment investigated the Stachys sieboldii (Chinese artichoke) neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract in alleviating learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) used as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min.

Oral administration of chorogi or ginkgo extracts significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO without affecting the locomotor activity.

Furthermore, both chorogi or ginkgo extract insignificantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments.

In primary neurons, the neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. 

These results suggested, chorogi or ginkgo extract protected the neurons integrity and viability by inhibiting the overexpression of free radicals through improving the antioxidant enzymes produced by the mice.

Researchers at the final report wrote. "chorogi extract, as well as ginkgo extract, can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism".

Taken altogether, artichoke may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of p learning and memory impairment with no side effects, pending to the validation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and MemoryDysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury by Harada S1, Tsujita T, Ono A, Miyagi K, Mori T, Tokuyama S. (PubMed)
(2) Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment by More SV1, Kumar H2, Cho DY3, Yun YS4, Choi DK. (PubMed)
(3) The relationship between Bcl-gene expression and learning and memory impairment in chronic aluminum-exposed rats by Niu Q1, Yang Y, Zhang Q, Niu P, He S, Di Gioacchino M, Conti P, Boscolo P. (PubMed)

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