Friday, 15 March 2019

Herbal Artichoke, The Anti Hypertriglyceridemic Functional Remedy, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Artichoke may be the next generation of whole food or remedy for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with no side effects, according to studies.

Hypertriglyceridemia is a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood.

Triglycerides are accumulated in the blood for future use by converting any unused calories. Overexpression of hyperglyceridemia is found to patients with atherosclerosis even without the presence of high cholesterol levels, and predispose.

In other words, hypertriglyceridemia can also be accumulated to the arterial wall or combined with other substances to form plaque that narrows the arteries in transporting rich oxygenated blood to the heart and other parts of the body.

There are 2 main sources of plasma triglycerides
* Dietary fat which is carried in chylomicrons.

* Fat is produced by the liver carried in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles.

Primary hypertriglyceridemia is found in 5% of patients associated with genetic preposition compared to 95% of secondary hypertriglyceridemia found in obese metabolic syndrome, diabetes,... patients.

Treating hypertriglyceridemia is difficult, as the condition is frequent coexistence with other conditions that affect cardiovascular disease risks, such as high levels of low-density lipoprotein, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. 

In severe cases of hypertriglyceridemia, patients may also experience the complication of acute pancreatitis, independent to the risk of CVD.

Artichoke is a perennial thistle of Cynara cardunculus species of the Cynara genus, belonging to the family Carduoideae native to Southern Europe around the Mediterranean.

The herbal plant has been used in traditional medicine as a liver protective and detoxified agent, and to treat digestive disorders, abdominal pain gas and bloating, etc.

In the concern of the overexpression of hypertriglyceridemia in risk of cardiovascular diseases, researchers examined the potentially favorable effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) on anthropometric (the size, shape, and composition of the human body) and metabolic indices affected by fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)-rs9939609 polymorphism.

The double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, included 52 patients with hypertriglyceridemia randomly allocated to receive ALE (1800 mg/day as four tablets) or matching placebo (consisting of corn starch, lactose, and avicel) for 12 weeks.

Interestingly, in 48 patients completed the trial (intervention, n = 24, placebo = 24), ALE and placebo groups were similar in the baseline characteristics.

However, the ALE treatment group showed a strong interaction between FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism and the levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG.

These results suggested that ALE modulated the TG level in A allele carriers compared to subjects with TT genotype, compared to those without.

Based on the findings, scientists wrote in the final report, "No significant effect of ALE supplementation was shown on anthropometric and biochemical indices in Iranian hypertriglyceridemic patients. However, rs9939609 variant of FTO gene seems to affect lipid profile response to ALE supplementation".

In order to reveal more information about artichoke antihypertriglyceridemic activity, researchers investigated the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models.

The study included a two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric, and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of Pluronic F-127.

Single intraperitoneal injection of Pluronic F-127 showed a significant increase in levels of serum LDL before treatments.

In a 10-day high fat diet model, only the combination 1 and 2 lowered serum cholesterol, LDL by 8–12%, decreased significantly triglycerides, LDL/HDL ratio; and increased significantly HDL.

Additionally, in the long-term treatment of each natural product for 7 weeks observation, researchers found that only artichoke and PPL inhibited significantly the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, the metabolic pathway associated with the production of cholesterol.

The finding strongly suggested that the combination of artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic extract prevents dyslipidemia with a short and long-term use.

Taken altogether, artichoke use alone or combined with other herbal medicines may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, pending to the confirmation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The interaction of FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism with artichoke leaf extract effects on cardiometabolic risk factors in hypertriglyceridemia: A randomized clinical trial by KhaterehRezazadehab, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadicd, Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghaniy. (ScienceDirect)
(2) Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats by Nidal A. Qinna, 1 ,* Basma S. Kamona, 1 Tawfiq M. Alhussainy, 1 Hashem Taha, 2Adnan A. Badwan, 3 and Khalid Z. Matalka. (PMC)
(3) Hypertriglyceridemia: its etiology, effects, and treatment by George Yuan, Khalid Z. Al-Shali and Robert A. Hegele. (CMAJ)

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