Wednesday, 27 March 2019

Bioactive Ingredient 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Gobbles Up Colorectal Cancer Cells in Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

Colorectal cancer is a medical and chronic condition caused by irregular cell growth in the colon or rectum.

Colorectal cancer is one of the slowest growth of cancer. Therefore, Most cases of colorectal cancer are discovered in the later stage, causing a high rate of mortality.

According to the study, at the advanced stage, the median survival of patients is 24 months (range 16–42). The one-year and 2-year survival rate is 65% and 25%, respectively.
Most cases of colorectal cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the colon or rectum. At the early stage, due to the small size of the tumor, most patients are asymptomatic.

However, at the advanced stage, the oversize tumor may suppress the nearby blood vessels and nerve cells, leading to persistently severe bleeding and pain.

Patients at this stage may also experience symptoms of a change in bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or consistency of the stool, that lasts longer than four weeks.

If you experience some of the aforementioned symptoms, please make sure that you check with your doctor immediately to rule out the possibility.

The exact causes of colorectal cancer are not identified. Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of the disease, aging may be one of the major cause, as most cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in adults over the age of 50, and the risk increases with age.

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

Researchers on finding a potential and natural compound for the treatment of colorectal cancer examined diindolylmethane (DIM) effect on cyclin D1, which was aberrantly overexpressed in various cancer cells and tumors.

Where Cyclin D1 is a protein associated with the progression of cancer through the G1 phase of the cell cycle in cellular division.

Injection of DIM interfered the Cyclin D1 function in the promotion of colorectal cancer proliferation, without affecting the cyclin D1 mRNA expression.

The results suggested that DIM modulated cyclin D1 expression by controlling the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA.

In other words, DIM.inhibited cyclin D1 by triggering ER stress in human colorectal cancer cells through decreasing protein synthesis and growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Additionally, in order to reveal more information about DIM anti-colorectal cancer property, researchers investigated the effect of DIM on the migratory and invasive activities of the human colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and HCT116.

Injection of DIM significantly inhibited the migratory ability of the DLD-1 and HCT116 cells at 24 and 48 hours.

DIM also significantly inhibited the invasion rate of the DLD-1 and HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

Following DIM treatment, researchers found that DIM anti-colorectal cancer property was associated with attenuating the mRNA expression levels of urokinase receptor and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) involved cancer cell adhesion and enhancing the expression of tumor-suppressive mRNA.

Furthermore, DIM significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of FOXM1 in the promotion of cellular division or proliferation in DLD-1 and HCT116 cells. 

Based on these results, Dr.Jin H, the lead scientist in the summary of the report, wrote, "DIM can influence the cell migratory and invasive properties of human colorectal cancer cells and may decrease the invasive capacity of colorectal cancer through downregulation of uPA and MMP9 mediated by suppression of the transcription factor FOXM1".

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) 3,3'-diindolylmethane downregulates cyclin D1 through triggering endoplasmic reticulum stress in colorectal cancer cells by Zhang X1, Sukamporn P2, Zhang S3, Min KW4, Baek SJ. (PubMed)
(2) FOXM1-mediated downregulation of uPA and MMP9 by 3,3'-diindolylmethaneinhibits migration and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells by Jin H1, Li XJ1, Park MH2, Kim SM. (PubMed)
(3) Survival of untreated advanced colorectal cancer patients by G.P. STATHOPOULOS, (PMC)

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