Sunday, 24 March 2019

Plant-based Chemical Betanin Kills Cancer Cells in Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancer is the class of diseases associated with the cells growth disorderly and uncontrollably due to the alternation of DNA.

Most cases of cancer begin in the cells on the surface of the inner lining tissues of organ or gland. At the early stage, most cancers are asymptomatic.

However, at the advanced stage, most cancers not can induce common symptoms such as gastrointestinal discomforts, unintended weight loss, loss of appetite and fatigue but also localized symptoms depending on the affected tissues and organs.

Cancers at this stage also can travel a distance away from the original site to induce secondary metastasis.

According to the statistics provided by the American cancer society, in 2018,1,735,350 new cases were diagnosed, representing more than 4,700 new cancer diagnoses each day.
The lifetime probability of being diagnosed with cancer is 39.7% for men and 37.6% for women.

Compared to all cancers, lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers are the most common cancer in the US.

The causes of cancer are unknown. age, excessive alcohol drinking, exposure to cancer causing-substances, diseases associated with chronic inflammation,  unhealthy diet,  hormones therapy, use of immunosuppression are some of the prevalent factors involved the onset of cancer.

However, most people with some of the aforementioned risk factors have never developed cancer.

Some researchers suggested that the rise of cancers in the obese individual may correlate to the promotion of the Western diet over the past few decades.

Dr.Timothy J Key, the lead scientist wrote, "Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Obesity increases the risk of cancers in the esophagus, colorectum, breast, endometrium, and kidney. Alcohol causes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver, and causes a small increase in the risk of breast cancer".

And, "Adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables probably lower the risk for several types of cancer, especially cancers of the gastrointestinal tract".

Betanin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient which reduces the side effects of potent anticancer drugs e.g. doxorubicin (DOX) on the normal tissues, researchers examined betanin (BET) effect in the co-administration with them.

In the study to overcome the restrictions of BET, researchers designed a new pH-responsive nanocarrier via decoration of gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) by (methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly ((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) (PGNPs) for the DOX and BET loading capacity of 20.5% and 16.25%, respectively).

Injection of DOX@BET loaded PGNPs decreased the significant cell viability amount of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) compared to the treatment of the free form of DOX or BET. 

In other words, the newly designed combination kills induce a higher percentage of cell death compared to the use of DOX or BET individually.

Sadly, the study did not confirm the combination reduced the side effect caused by DOX  during the experiment.

Dr. Javadi B in the examination of herbal plants for the treatment of breast cancer showed that beetroot (Beta vulgris) induced cancer death by cytotoxicity without affecting the nearby healthy cells.

He continued, "additional pharmacological studies and clinical trials are needed to elucidate their molecular and cellular mechanisms of actions, frequency, and amount of consumption, possible adverse effects, and optimum preparation methods.".

Taken altogether, betanin used alone or combined with other herbal medicines may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of turmeric in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) A novel smart PEGylated gelatin nanoparticle for co-delivery of doxorubicin and betanin: A strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy by Amjadi S1, Hamishehkar H2, Ghorbani M. (PubMed)
(2) Diet Therapy for Cancer Prevention and Treatment Based on Traditional Persian Medicine by Javadi B. (PubMed)
(3) The effect of diet on risk of cancer by Dr. Timothy J Key, Naomi E Allen, Elizabeth A Spencer,
Ruth C Travis. (The Lancet)

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