Sunday, 10 March 2019

Phytochemical Sinigrin Protects Our Body Against the Onset of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

By Kyle J. Norton

Sinigrin may be used as a natural and bioactive compound against diseases associated with chronic inflammation, according to studies.

Acute inflammation that lasts a day or 2 mostly associated with proinflammatory response to tissue injury, usually appearing within minutes or hours, depending on the severity of the damage.

In other words, in the acute phase of inflammation, the immune systematic response of the macrophages stimulate the process of coagulation to cover the wound or injure and production of the inflammatory cytokines to destroy the foreign pathogens which try to enter the body through the wound or injury.

Most common symptoms of acute inflammation are pain, redness, loss of function, swelling and heat.

In the acute phase of inflammation, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which protect our body against the foreign invasion may damage the nearby tissues and death of the healthy cell, leading to the abnormal formation of scars.

Chronic inflammation is a medical condition caused by the inability of the immune system to kill off all pathogens in the acute phase of inflammation, leading to the compromise of the immune system.

Chronic inflammation is a leading cause of various types of disease, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and arthritis.

Unlike the symptoms in the acute inflammation, symptoms of chronic inflammation are totally depending to the types of disease and location of the inflammation, including fatigue and unintended weight loss and loss of appetite in cancer,  chest pain in chronic lung disease, and joint pain in RA.

On finding a natural compound for the treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, researchers investigated the effect of sinigrin on macrophage function.

In RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, sinigrin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines including nitric oxide (NO)  and the expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Injection of sinigrin significantly suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 by suppressing the protein in cellular response to oxidative stress and stimuli.

Additional analysis, sinigrin also processed a significant effect in inhibiting genes expression involved the mediation of innate immunity and inflammatory responses.

Dr. Lee HW, the lead scientist, wrote in the final report, " Our findings also provide evidence that the pharmacological modulation of sinigrin could have an anti-inflammatory effect".

In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, AITC protected the microglial cells against neuroinflammation by inhibiting the cellular response against oxidative stress induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

In other words, AITC protects neuroblastoma cells by controlling with JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking associated with the expression of the gene in inducing apoptosis.

Dr. Subedi L, the lead scientist, after taking into account co and confounders said, "These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration".

Taken altogether, sinigrin may be considered a functional supplement for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

However, intake of bioactive in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care, as liver toxicity may be induced if overdosed.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Sinigrin inhibits production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-κB/MAPK pathways or NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by Lee HW1, Lee CG1, Rhee DK1, Um SH2, Pyo S. (PubMed)
(2) Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling by Subedi L1, Venkatesan R2, Kim SY. (PubMed)



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