Thursday, 28 March 2019

Tomato, the Anti Hyperlipidemia Functional Food for Type 2 Diabetes

By Kyle J. Norton

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally high blood cholesterol in the bloodstream. The condition is also a member of the cluster of metabolic syndrome associated with the risk type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Cholesterol is a waxy substance with a double-edged sword. On one hand, cholesterol is essential for the body to build strong cellular membranes, production of steroids hormones, and vitamin D and aided digestion, on another hand, it also causes a number of diseases if overexpressed in the blood.

Cholesterol is either produced by the liver or by the intake of fat.

There are 2 types of cholesterol in the body, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL, bad cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (good cholesterol).

Where high-density lipoprotein (HDL, good cholesterol) plays a critical role to return the cholesterol to the liver for future use. Low levels of high-density or high levels lipoproteins may result in blood cholesterol accumulated in the blood, leading to high blood cholesterol.

The optimized ratio of LDL/ HDL is any numbers that less than 4.

Dr. Joan Carles Escola`-Gil, the lead scientist in the evaluation of the Western diet risk of high blood cholesterol wrote, ". The HFHC diet caused a significant increase in plasma cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and liver cholesterol and enhanced macrophage-derived [ 3 H]cholesterol flux to feces by 3- to 4-fold".

In other words, long-term intake of high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia.

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient or whole food for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, researchers examined the effect of tomato and grape pomace to the cholesterol (0.3%) diet of male Wistar rats produced a dose-dependent effect.

During the experiment, researchers found that at 5% pomace of either and grape or combination showed no effects on reduced levels of hyperlipidemia.

However, 15% pomace of tomato and grape reduced serum cholesterol levels from 4.4 mmol/L to 2.5 mmol/L and 2.0 mmol/L respectively.

Interestingly, at the concentration of 15%, both tomato and grape pomace induced a redistribution of cholesterol in lipoproteins associated with an anti-atherogenic profile and reduced cholesterol concentration in very-low-density lipoprotein (VDL) (24% [tomato], 50% [grape]) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (3-fold, 3.6-fold).

Furthermore, both types of pomace enhanced the function of HDL in cholesterol transport by reducing the VLDL and LDL contribution.

Moreover, tomato and grape pomace reduced plasma levels of conjugated dienes involved in cholesterol oxidation in high levels by 30-50%

Additionally, injection also improved the antioxidant enzymes in the liver against lipid peroxidation.

In rats fed with hypercholesterolemic feed and treated with lycopene orally by gavage at the dose of 5, 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105, 125 mg/kg/bw-1/d-1, researchers found that injection of all doses of lycopene exerted a statistical significance in reduced the levels of cholesterol observed by inverse U shape at the 4 weeks of the experiment.

Furthermore, serum lycopene concentration was negatively correlated with the levels of serum TC, LDL-C, particularly in the cerebral LDL-C.

Serum lycopene concentration was also found to have a positive correlation with the expression of Claudin-5 associated with brain microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration. and the number of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3.

In other words, serum lycopene showed a strong effect on the protection of neurons against hyperlipidemia in the brain that facilitates neurons damage.

Dr. Wang W, the lead scientist said, "These results suggested an inverse U-shape relation between dose and serum concentration of lycopene, and intermediate doses were most effective to protect cerebral vessels and neurons from being damaged by hyperlipidemia".

Taken altogether, tomatoes processed high amounts of lycopene may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The dose-response effect of lycopene on cerebral vessel and neuron impairment induced by hyperlipidemia by Wang W, Yang W, Shen Z, Wen S, Hu M. (PubMed)
(2) Dietary tomato and grape pomace in rats: effect on lipids in serum and liver, and on antioxidant status by Bobek P. (PubMed)
(3) The Cholesterol Content of Western Diets Plays a Major Role in the Paradoxical Increase in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Upregulates the Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport Pathway by  Joan Carles Escola`-Gil, Gemma Llaverias, Josep Julve, Matti Jauhiainen,Jesu´s Me´ndez-Gonza´lez, Francisco Blanco-Vaca

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