Friday, 29 March 2019

Ginger Inhibits the Production of Advanced Glycation End (AGEs) Products Against the Onset of Chronic Diseases, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

Advanced glycation end is a by produces formed by protein or fat combine with sugar caused by cooking meat at high temperature.

The products have been found to affect metabolic health.

Most common causes of AGEs are from the diet, particularly in people who follow the Western diet with high saturated and trans fat, a lot of red meats and processed foods.

Low levels of AGEs may not be a problem, however, overexpression of AGEs can induce oxidative stress, leading to inflammation and damage proteins, lipid and sometimes alternation of cells DNA.

In other words, AGEs initiates the production and free radicals and free radical a chain reaction that can not be stopped until all electrons in the outer ring paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Accelerated formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products have been found to increased hyperglycemia or oxidative stress, leading to age-related and chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoarthritis and also non-diabetic atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure.

Some researchers suggested that modern life byproducts AGEs are the results of the promotion of the processed food diet.

Dr. Chetan Sharma, Amarjeet Kaur, the lead scientist in the assessment of AGEs, wrote, "As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)".

And, "The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and aging,... The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs".

The results strongly suggested the link of modern diet with highly processed food is a leading cause of chronic diseases.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root, the second superfood used for thousands of years by mankind, is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil.

The root has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.

Researchers on finding a medical remedy in the inhibition of advanced glycation end (AGE) compared tea flavonoid (-)-epicatechin and [6]-Shogaol, a bioactive compound found in ginger against methylglyoxal (MGO) induced AGE formation.

Where Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a reactive dicarbonyl species considered a precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

Application of tea flavonoid (-)-epicatechin and [6]-Shogaol showed a strong effect in decreasing about 41% of MGO at a concentration of 10 μM within 24 h.

Both compounds also exerted a similar effect in vivo.

According to the urine samples collected from epicatechin and [6]-shogaol + epicatechin treated mice, both compounds also demonstrated a significant activity of adduction against mono-MGO.

Dr. Huang Q, the lead scientist in the joint study at the Nanjing Normal University, said, " this is the first study demonstrating the additive MGO trapping efficacy of [6]-shogaol and epicatechin and that [6]-shogaol and epicatechin retained their MGO trapping capacity in mice".

The results suggested that  [6]-shogaol + epicatechin prevent the production of AGEs by inhibiting the precursor (MGO).

Additionally, in order to reveal more information of ginger effect on AGEs, researchers investigated [6]-shogaol (6S) and [6]-gingerol (6G) on Methylglyoxal (MGO) which has been found in the contributes to the protein glycation and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

Similar to the above study, both [6]-shogaol (6S) and [6]-gingerol (6G) markedly trapped MGO in vitro. 

In the depth analysis, researchers found that 6S or 6G trapping MGO. was associated with the α-carbon of the carbonyl group in the side chain of the compounds in a time-dependent manner.

The findings showed the potential effects of 6S and 6G on the prevention of protein glycation through inhibiting the MGO.

Dr. Zhu Y, the lead scientist said, "...regular consumption of ginger root extract may attenuate the progression of MGO-associated diabetic complications in patients'.

Taken all together, ginger used alone or combined with green tea may be considered function remedies for the production of advanced glycation end products, pending to the confirmation of large and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Additive Capacity of [6]-Shogaol and Epicatechin To Trap Methylglyoxal by Huang Q1,2, Wang P2, Zhu Y2, Lv L1, Sang S2. (PubMed)
(2) Bioactive ginger constituents alleviate protein glycation by trapping methylglyoxal by Zhu Y1, Zhao Y1, Wang P1, Ahmedna M2, Sang S1. (PubMed)
(3) Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries by Chetan Sharma, Amarjeet Kaur, S S Thind, Baljit Singh, and Shiveta Raina. (PMC)

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