Sunday, 10 March 2019

Strawberries Eradicate Oral/Mouth Cancer Cells

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a tasty whole fruit for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer with no side effects, according to studies.

Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).

Most cases of primary oral cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the mouth cavity tissue due to the alternation of DNA.

At the advanced after striking deeper into the cavity tissues, malignant cells can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other healthy tissue and organs.

In general, oral cavity cancer tends to spread primarily to the lymph nodes of the neck first before it spreads or metastasizes to other areas. The second level of oral cancer metastasis is the lung.

The causes of oral cancer are unknown. Epidemiological studies suggested that long-term use of tobacco, excessive alcohol drinking, infected by the human papillomavirus (HPV), people with previous cancer and family history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), occupations associated with sun exposure are the prevalent risk factors of the onset of oral cancer.

However, most people who carry numbers of the above risk factor have never developed oral cancer.

Believe it or not, oral sex also one of the major cause of oral cancer. Some researchers suggested that some types of cancer are linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the mouth and throat. It's likely that some types of HPV are spread by oral sex.

According to statistics, 6% of men and 1% of women had an HPV infection in the mouth.

Dr. Rajiv Saini, at the Rural Dental College Loni, in the study "Oral sex and oral cancer: A virus link" wrote, "Oral sex may be practiced by people of all sexual orientations and the various types of oral sex performed are cunnilingus, fellatio, and analingus" and "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted through oral sex with an infected partner".

"A good oral health, free from bleeding gums, lip sores, cuts, broken skin, and oral epithelium, enormously reduces the chances of transmission of infection among the partners indulging in oral sex".

Strawberry is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae.

The fruits have been grown all over the world in a suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.

The major chemical compounds of strawberry include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.

With an aim to reconfirm the epidemiological studies suggested that adding a portion of strawberries ( Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress-mediated diseases such as cancer, researchers examined multiple phenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties.

Oxidative stress is associated with the overexpression free radicals or deletion of antioxidant enzymes in the host body, leading to protein and lipid damage and alternation of cell DNA, the major causes of cancers.

Using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) detection, identified 10 phenolic compounds from strawberry extracts, including cyanidin-3-glucoside ( 1), pelargonidin (2), pelargonidin-3-glucoside (3), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-3-(6'-coumaroyl)glucoside) (7), 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-acrylic acid (8), glucose ester of ( E)- p-coumaric acid (9), and ellagic acid.

According to the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), the anthocyanins 1 (7156 microM Trolox/mg), 2 (4922 microM Trolox/mg), and 4 (5514 microM Trolox/mg) were the most potent antioxidants, compared to other compounds with similar concentration.

Moreover, crude extracts (250 microg/mL) and pure compounds (100 microg/mL) processed a significant effect in inhibiting the growth and inducing apoptosis of human oral (CAL-27, KB).

Additionally, by comparing the extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry, researchers found that all berries contain the major phenolics compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids in a different volume.

At concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL, the berry extracts exerted a similar effect as that of strawberry mentioned in the above study in blocking the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27).

Increasing concentration of berry extract also showed to increase the inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the tested cell lines. 

Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against the human oral (KB, CAL-27) cell line, probably due to the stimulation of the COX-2 in the production of macrophages against malignant cells.

The finding once again suggested that strawberry extracts showed significant pro-apoptotic effects against human oral (KB, CAL-27).

Taken altogether, strawberry processed high amounts of bioactive compounds may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties. by Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Lee R, Feng L, Heber D.(PubMed)
(2) Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro by Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D.(PubMed)
(3) Oral sex and oral cancer: A virus link by Rajiv Saini. (PMC)

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