Tuesday, 19 March 2019

Phytochemical Sinigrin, the Potential Anti Lung Cancer Bioactive Ingredient with No Side Effects, According to Medical Literature

By Kyle J. Norton

Lung cancer is a chronic condition characterized by cells growth disorderly in the tissue of the lungs.

According to the statistic provided by the American Cancer Society, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women. More people die of lung cancer than from colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined each year in the US.

In 2018, in the US 234,030 new cases of lung cancer were diagnosed in the US including 121,680 in men and 112,350 in women.

Most cases of lung cancers are diagnosed in people who are 65 or older. The lifetime risk of lung cancer in men is 1/15 and in women 1/17.

Certain risk factors such as long-term smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, radon gas and toxic chemicals and family history are associated with the onset of lung cancer.

However, most people with some of the above risk factors do not develop lung cancer.

Some researchers suggested people with a weakened immune system such as elderly, long term use of antibiotic and immune suppressive medicine may be prone to getting lung cancer.

Dr. Joanna Domagala-Kulawik, in the examination of the role of the immune system in non-small cell lung carcinoma, wrote, "Very low and heterogonous antigenicity of lung cancer cells leads to passive escape from the anti-cancer immune defense. The cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) that play a main role in the anticancer response are actively suppressed in the tumor environment and following regulatory mechanisms inhibit the recognition of tumor antigens by antigen presenting cells".

The results clearly suggested that immune cytotoxicity against cancer cells is suppressed in patients with lung cancer. In other words, by restoring the genes associated with programming cancer cell death and tumor suppression, lung cancer may be preventable.

Sinigrin is a phytochemical glucosinolate, belongs to the family of glucosides found abundantly in Brussels sprouts, broccoli, the seeds of black mustard, etc.

Researchers on the finding a natural ingredient for the treatment of lung cancer examined the effects of dietary sinigrin or indole-3-carbinol on tumorigenicity in F344 rats.

During the experiment, dietary sinigrin at a concentration of 3 mumol/g diet decreased 7-methylguanine formation in hepatic DNA but had no effect on 7-methylguanine levels of lung or nasal mucosa DNA. 

No effects on O6-methylguanine--DNA-transmethylase activity were observed in tissue extracts derived from the livers, lungs and nasal mucosae of rats fed diets containing sinigrin or I3C.

Where O6-methylguanine--DNA-transmethylase activity is a DNA repair protein.

The findings strongly suggested that dietary sinigrin or indole-3-carbinol do not inhibit lung cancer expression through DNA repair.

However, dietary sinigrin plus nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco cancer induced chemical resulted in a significant incidence of lung and nasal cavity tumors in F344 rats.

These results clearly suggested that dietary sinigrin inhibits lung cancer proliferation through some unknown mechanisms other than DNA methylation and O6-methylguanine repair.

Taken altogether, sinigrin may be used as a supplement for the prevention of lung cancer and combined with primary therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Effects of dietary sinigrin or indole-3-carbinol on O6-methylguanine-DNA-transmethylase activity and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced DNA methylation and tumorigenicity in F344 rats by Morse MA1, Wang CX, Amin SG, Hecht SS, Chung FL. (PubMed)
(2) The role of the immune system in non-small cell lung carcinoma and potential for therapeutic intervention by Joanna Domagala-Kulawik. (PMC)

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