Friday, 8 March 2019

Bilberry Modulates the Expression of Energy Metabolism, According to Scientists

By Kyle J. Norton

Bilberry may be the next potential target by the pharmaceutical companies to extract a single ingredient medicine for improvement of energy metabolism, according to studies.

Energy metabolism is a process to generate energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate or fat already stored in the body.

Although carbohydrates and fat are considered the major sources of energy in the diet, protein is necessary for all kinds of biological processes but less in the direct production of energy purposes.

Energy metabolism alterations are found associated with a large number of diseases including mitochondrial diseases, acute coronary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, asthma or even cancer. 

And, energy metabolism alternation can also affect all organs and tissues functioning.

Certain factors can increase and decrease the rate of energy metabolism, such as the immune cells require energy to maintain cellular viability and to perform specific immune functions, including

* Body size such as weight and heigh

* Body composition: fat tissue has a lower metabolic activity than muscle tissue.

* Aging: decrease muscle mass decrease energy metabolism.

* Gender women have a slow rate of energy metabolism compared to men.

Dr. Prabhakar, the lead scientist in the investigation of the energy metabolism on obesity, said, "Energy used by the body is described in terms of the metabolic rate underlying passive and active conditions which are further correlated to body weight".

And, "Energy metabolism and the role of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein in foods are areas of emerging research with a therapeutic approach against obesity and related biological disorders". of e

The results strongly suggested that if you are obese, you are at higher risk of diseases associated with decreased rate of energy metabolism, such as insulin resistance.

Bilberry is a species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern Europe.

The herbal plant has been used as foods and herbs in traditional medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea, gastritis, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis, ulcerative colitis, anemia, cystitis, kidney disease, and psoriasis, diabetes, etc.

Researchers on finding the natural ingredient for the improvement of energy metabolism investigated the bilberry activity in genes expressed in the intestinal mucosa which is responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion.

Injection of bilberry improved the intestinal barrier functioning by enhancing the balance of gut microbiota, thus increasing the nutrients absorption.

Furthermore, male C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) selected to the study received a control low-fat diet (LFD; 10 kcal% fat) for 6 weeks followed by 24 weeks of either LFD (n = 13) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45 kcal% fat; n = 13) or HFD supplemented with 0.1% w/w of the flavanol compound epicatechin (HFD+E; n = 13) or an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (HFD+B; n = 13), researchers found that
* The switch from an LFD to an HFD increases the plasma cholesterol and hepatic lipid content in non-anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract treatment group.

* The polyphenol compounds in the HFD supplemented with 0.1% w/w of the flavanol compound epicatechin could not prevent HFD-induced systemic rise of inflammatory levels compared to the bilberry treatment group.

* The findings strongly supported the use of supplementation of HFD with an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract for the beneficial effects on the systemic early inflammatory response associated with HFD-induced obesity.

Dr. the leads scientist wrote, "On the tissue level, long-term treatment with bilberry attenuated TNF-α expression in adipose tissue".

In other words, the intake of anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract lowers the level of systemic inflammation in the adipose tissue against the onset of metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies.

Taken altogether, bilberry may be considered a functional remedy to improve the intestinal barrier functioning in energy metabolism by reducing the intestinal inflammation and promoting healthy adipocytes.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Changes in intestinal immunity, gut microbiota, and expression of energy metabolism-related genes explain adenoma growth in bilberry and cloudberry-fed ApcMin mice by Päivärinta E1, Niku M2, Maukonen J3, Storvik M4, Heiman-Lindh A5, Saarela M6, Pajari AM7, Mutanen M8. (PubMed)
(2) Effects of Anthocyanin and Flavanol Compounds on Lipid Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Associated Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity. by van der Heijden RA1, Morrison MC2, Sheedfar F3, Mulder P4, Schreurs M5, Hommelberg PP6, Hofker MH7, Schalkwijk C8, Kleemann R2, Tietge UJ5, Koonen DP7, Heeringa P. (PubMed)
(3) 6 - Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fats: Energy Metabolism by Prabhakar Singh, Rajesh K.Kesharwani, Raj K.Keservani. (Science Direct)

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