Wednesday, 6 March 2019

3,3'-Diindolylmethane, The Potential Melanoma Inhibitor, According to Studies

By Kyle J. Norton

3,3'-Diindolylmethane may be the next bioactive compound for the treatment of melanoma with no side effects, according to studies.

Melanoma is skin cancer caused by the alternation of melanocytes DNA in the skin pigment, leading to the formation of moles that change in the color, size or shape on the skin.

Most cases of melanoma start in the in the melanocytes or pigment-producing cells in the outer layer of the skin. However, at the later stage, the cancer cells can travel through the circulation of blood and fluids to infect other healthy cells and tissue, leading to secondary metastasis.

The liver, lungs, bones, and brain are most often affected by melanoma metastases.

According to statistic, the risk of melanoma is largely depended on the race. the lifetime risk of getting melanoma is about 2.5% (1 in 40) for whites, 0.1% (1 in 1,000) for blacks, and 0.5% (1 in 200) for Hispanics.

The 5 years survival rate of melanoma is closed to 100% if the disease is diagnosed in the localized stages.

In the US, every year, approximately 96,480 new melanomas are diagnosed, leading to the death of 7,000 people.

In North America, most cases of melanoma are associated with UVB exposure, causing the alteration of the cell DNA.

Dr. S A Oliveria, the lead scientist said, "Sun-sensitive phenotypes and reported sunburn were associated with an increased risk of melanoma" and "intense sun exposure is causal for melanoma in those prone to sunburn".

3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

Researchers on finding a natural compound for the treatment of melanoma compared the effects of
kaempferol (Kem), genistein (Gen), and 3'3-diindolylmethane (DIM) on melanoma cell viability.

Treatment of A375SM melanoma cells with the tested phytochemicals resulted in inhibition of cell growth.

DIM exerted the strong inhibition against the A375SM melanoma cells by increasing the tumor suppressive gene expression, p21 and decreasing the gene expression associated with the cancer cell proliferation and survival.

Injection of DIM and other tested phytochemical also induced the expression of pro-apoptotic pathways against the tested cancer cell line and deactivated the anti-apoptotic pathways.

Furthermore, DIM and tested phytochemical also enhanced the activity of ROS in the induction of cytotoxicity without causing harm to the healthy cells.

Dr. Heo JR and colleagues said, "These results indicate that phytochemicals (kaempferol (Kem), genistein (Gen), and 3'3-diindolylmethane (DIM)) are potentially useful in treatments for melanoma due to their ability to inhibit melanoma cell growth and division".

Taken altogether, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane may be considered a supplement for the prevention and combined with primary medicine for the treatment of melanoma, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

Injection of DIM in a form of supplement should be taken with exceptional care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Phytochemical-induced reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and differentiation in malignant melanoma cells by Heo JR1, Lee GA1, Kim GS1, Hwang KA1, Choi KC. (PubMed)
(2) Novel 3,3'-diindolylmethane derivatives: synthesis and cytotoxicity, structural characterization in solid state by Maciejewska D1, Rasztawicka M, Wolska I, Anuszewska E, Gruber B. (PubMed)
(3) Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumours in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate by Julia A Newton-Bishop, Yu-Mei Chang, Faye Elliott, May Chan, Susan Leake, Birute Karpavicius, Sue Haynes, Elaine Fitzgibbon, Kairen Kukalizch, Juliette Randerson-Moor, David E Elder,* D Timothy Bishop, and Jennifer H Barrett. (PMC)

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