1. Proclactin and immune system
Proclactin is closely associated with immune system by enhancing its function in fighting against diseases, according to the study of 'Imipramine induced elevation of prolactin levels in patients with HIV/AIDS improved their immune status" by Orlander H, Peter S, Jarvis M, Ricketts-Hall L., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the result showed a trend of prolactin levels decreasing after washout (p = 0.015) and increasing by the end of the trial period once imipramine dispensation had recommenced (p = 0.006). With respect to the CD4 cell count, there was a significant increase after wash-out (p = 0.022). These results indicate a trend to immune boosting in HIV-positive patients who had obtained the maximum response from HAART.
2. Proclactin and healthy infant and suppression of ovulation
Proclatin not only associated in the production of breast milk after children but also reduce the chance of pregnancy for a healthy infant during the first 6 months of breast feeding, according to the study of "Breast is best" by Philippine Legislators' Committee on Population and Development Foundation, posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that full breast feeding means no supplemental food or liquid during the first 6 months after giving birth; the infant is fed solely on breast milk. Prolactin levels, luteinizing hormone, and the altered gonadotrophin-releasing hormone are currently considered responsible for suppression of ovulation. Even after return of menses breast feeding women have a reduced chance of pregnancy. Frequency of suckling is associated with gonadotrophin secretion and reduced fertility. Night time breast feeding is considered particularly important in delaying the return of fertility. Longer child spacing, as assisted by prolonged and full breast feeding, contributes to healthier infants. Breast feeding also contributes to improved maternal health and psychosocial benefits.
3. Proclactin and lactation
Proclactin stimulates the mammal gland in secretion of milk after childbirth for child feeding. It is known that the concentration of prolactin increases in response to nipple stimulation by baby feeding, according to the study of "Blood and milk prolactin and the rate of milk synthesis in women" by Cox DB, Owens RA, Hartmann PE.,posted in PubMed, researchers found that The concentration of prolactin in the milk was related to the degree of fullness of the breast, such that the concentration was highest when the breast was full. We found no relationship between the concentration of prolactin in the plasma and the rate of milk synthesis in either the short or long term. However, the relationship between the concentration of prolactin in milk and the degree of fullness of the breast suggests that the internalization of prolactin, after binding to its receptor, may be restricted when the alveolus is distended with milk.
4. Proclactin and Breast cancer
Breast feeding and childbirth reduce the risk of breast cancer, according to the study of "Prolactin levels, breast-feeding and milk production in a cohort of young healthy women from high-risk breast cancer families: implications for breast cancer risk" by Hietala M, Olsson H, Jernström H., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Prolactin was higher in women who reported insufficient versus sufficient milk production (P < or = 0.01). Neither BRCA1/2 carrier status nor increasing parity was significantly associated with prolactin, breast-feeding duration of the first child or milk production and concluded that post-lactational prolactin levels were determined by breast-feeding duration of the first child and not simply by the first full-term pregnancy. Since prolactin modifies the risk for breast cancer, adequate counseling in favor of breast-feeding is essential.
5. Proclactin and autoimmune diseases
proclactin is found to be associated in production of autoantibody to protect our body against autoimmune diseases, according to the study of "Prolactin and autoimmunity" by Vera-Lastra O, Jara LJ, Espinoza LR., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Polymorphisms of the human PRL gene have implications for production of lymphocyte PRL in SLE. Mild and moderate hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) has been demonstrated in 20-30% of SLE patients and is associated with active disease. HPRL may have a role in lupus nephritis and central nervous system involvement of SLE patients. HPRL stimulated the production of autoantibodies. These evidences support the important role of PRL in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases, mainly SLE.
6. Proclactin and Dopamine
Dopamine is known as a neurotransmitter in controlling the brain's reward and pleasure centers, but as a hormone it has a function of inhibiting the release of prolactin from the anterior of the pituitary by enhancing sexual desire, according to the study of "Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor." by Ben-Jonathan N, Hnasko R., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The generation of transgenic animals with overexpressed or mutated genes expanded our understanding of dopamine-PRL interactions and the physiological consequences of their perturbations. PRL release in humans, which differs in many respects from that in laboratory animals, is affected by several drugs used in clinical practice. Hyperprolactinemia is a major neuroendocrine-related cause of reproductive disturbances in both men and women. The treatment of hyperprolactinemia has greatly benefited from the generation of progressively more effective and selective dopaminergic drugs.
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